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AP Euro Semester 1

Semester Final for Mrs.Shaw

Neoplatonism Platonic philisophy traslated by Ficino
War of Roses Civil war b/w ducal houses: Lancaster(red rose)and York(white rose)
Medici in Florence Increase in banking(15th century) by the Medici family
Printing Movable type invented by Johannes Gutenberg
Black Death 1347-1351 crop failure, 15% of people died from famine. Bulges turn black
Estates First:Clergy Second:Nobility Third:Peasants
Hermeticism/Pantheism Translation of Corpus Hermeticum(sci and ph)/ divinity in all aspects of nature
Francesco Guicciardini P backround helped him write history through P and military emphasis
Johannes Gutenberg Inventor of movable type
New Monarchies France, England, Spain at 15th century with centralized power
Syclif and Lollardy John Wyclif hated clerical corruption, followeres were Lollardians
Hus and Hussites John Hus also attacked clergy, burned at the stake, started Hussite wars
Sacrosanta and Frequens Church received authority from God and holding of councils to ensure reform
Nepotism Families serve in clergy for increase of power in church
Sack of Rome 1527 under HRE Charles V
Fall of Constantinople 1204 Byzantine power overthrown by Ottoman Turks
Entrepreneurs Rulers who transfered titles to underground minerals to financiers as collateral for loans
Northern Humanism focused on early manuscripts, sought to reform church last half of 15th century
Thomas More Christian humanist and Lord Chancellor of England, wrote Utopia and gave life to King Henry VIII
Pluralism High church officials taking over more than 1 office
Zwinglian Reformation Ulrich Zwingli brought reform to Switzerland,Zurich; music, clergy, and pope eliminated
Charles V-Hapsburg HRE tried to keep territory and christianity, abdicated in 1556
Anabaptists Radical reformers, mostly peasants affected by E, no one should be forced to accept bible
St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572 Bourbons were killed in Paris by Charles IX(persuaded by Guise family and Catherine de Midici), Henry of Navarre survived
Philip II King of Spain and HRE lost Netherlands and Spanish armada lost to Queen Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth Killed Queen Mary, Act of Uniformity(church service), weakened France and Spain, supressed puratins and avoided war
Absenteeism Church officeholders ignored duties ahdn hired underlings not qualified
Transubstantiation Bread and wine transform to the body and blood of Jesus
Schmalkaldic League 8 princes and 11 imperial cities(lutheran) formed to defend themselves from Charles V
Schmalkaldic Wars 1546-1559, lutherans defeated at Battle of Muhlberg; Henry II+protistants defeated Charles, PEACE OF AUGSBURG
Habsburg-Valois Wars War against Valois king of France, Francis I; 2 wars b/w 1521-1544
War of 3 Henries Henry duke of Guise vs. Henry III vs. Henry of Navarre 1588-1589 Henry of Navarre took the throne and turned Catholic
Puratins Protistants w/in the Anglican church inspired to Calvinism to remove any trace of Catholicism from the curch of England
Price Revolution Prices increased in Europe, commercial and industrial entrepreneurs benefited, growth of capitalism
Bartholomeu Dias 1488 South Atlantic to Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama Reached East coast of Africa and set port of Calicut in India
Afonso de Albuquerque Set port at Goa(headquarters of Portuguese trade in India)
Conquistador Authorized by Castilian crown and financed privately, groups sent to conquer foreign lands
Middle Passage Journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas
Witchcraft Craze Village cult viewed as activities of the devil by M/E church, persecution increased in 17th century in protistant regions
Constitutional Monarchy Constitution shares power w/ nobles or parliament giving head of state limited power, Instrument of Gov. in England by Cromwell and Bill of Rights in the Glorious Revolution
Mannerism and Baroque Art Mannerist painters distorted proportion and conveyed strong emotions(El Greco); Baroque used dramatic effects to heighten emotional intensity(Peter Paul Rubens)
Cardinal Richelieu/Mazarin Chief ministers that crushed conspiracies, executed royal authority, increase monarchial power and dept in France
Russian Serfdom Tsar on top followed by upper class of landed aristocrats who bound their peasants to land
Orthodox Church Merchants and peasants and schism revolted the Orthodox church
Vienna/Ottoman Empire the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent with an effective gov. that expanded to the west, Vienna resisted
Janissaries Christian boys taken from parents, converted to Muslim, and subjected to rigid military training; 8,000 troops loyal to sultan
House of Orange Part of Dutch Rep. occupied the stadholderate in 7 provinces and favored centralized gov. w/ themselves as hereditary monarchs
Amsterdam Financial and commercial capital of Europe w/ an increased population in 1610, founded Amsterdam Stock Exchange in commodities
James II Catholic brother of Charles II who came to power in 1685 after English Civil War, protistant daughter Mary and William of Orange overthrew him
Bourbons Calvanist dynasty fought France and Spain w/ England, United Provinces, Habsburg Austria, and German States(PEACE OF UTRECHT 1713 and OF RASTATT 1714)
Charles I/II Charles I fought Cromwell in the English Civil War, Charles II reestablished the monarchy after Cromwell's death
Scientific Method Bacon's empiricism + Descartes' rationalism: systematic observations and experiments
Antoine Lavoisier Invented system of naming elements, founder of chemistry
Newton Invented scientific method, 3 laws of gravity, and president of Royal Society
Renaissance Magic Hermetic magic w/ alchemical thought, world was a living embodiment of divinity
Brahe Danish noble man made record of his observations of the stars and planets, imperial mathmatician to Emperor Rudolf II
Kepler 3 laws of planetary motion, eliminated idea of crystalline spheres revolving in circular orbits
Galileo First to observe heavens w/ telescope: mountains and craters on moon, 4 moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and sunspots
Skepticism Fontenelle, downplaying the R backgrounds of the 17c, church is enemy of scientific progress
Joseph II New policy toward Jews, litte more freedom
High cult vs. Popular cult High education and more literacy in high class; S activities and life of people, festivals
Edward Gibson Author wrote "decline and fall of Roman Empire"
Immanuel Kant German philosophe defined the Enlightenment as "man's leaving his self-caused immaturity"
David Hume Pioneer of S science, used observation and reflection
Physiocrats Founders of modern discipline of E, natural E laws that governed S
Francois Quesney Leader of physiocrats, land constituted only source of wealth
Denis Diderot Writer who complained of R and attacked Christianity viciously
Paul d' Holbach Antheism and materialism, believed in classes
Marie-Jean de Condorcet French philosophe claim for forgiveness, The Progress of the Human Mind
Jean Jacques Rousseau Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, most critical philosophe
S Contract Rousseau, harmonize liberty w/ gov. authority
Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman, women rights in enlightenment
General Directory Frederick I, chief administrative agent of central gov.; supervised millitary, E, police, financial affairs
Reason of State Joseph II, tried to put enlightenment ideas in the Habsburg state
Edict of Nantes 1598 Catholicism offficial R of France but guaranteed Huguenots right to worship and allowed fortified towns
Administration of Spanish Empire Administrative system based on Viceroy advised by Audiencias; catholic Spain was given extensive R power in the new world
Columbia Exchange Import/Export trade b/w Europe and the Americas
Viceroy King's chief civil and military officer, aided by audiencias; Viceroy of Lima
Audiencias Advisory groups that helped viceroys and were supreme judicial bodies
Encomienda Queen Izabella, permitted Spaniards to collect tribute from natives and used them as laborers; Indians were protected, given wages,and their spiritual needs were supervised
Joint-Stock Company People bought shares in a company and received dividens on their investment while a board of directors ran the company
Commercial Capitalism Commercial expansion mostly in Mediterranian, Low Countries, and Baltic region; Dutch ruled European and world trade
Mercantilism Historian name for E tendencies that dominate E practices in 17c
Balance of Power Richelieu eliminated P and military rights of Huguenots and preserved R ones
Golden Age Dutch Rep Power struggle b/w Orange and rep, E prosper, Amsterdam became European trading city; United Provinces-Atlantic power
Gustavus Adolphus Swedish king(30 Years' War) military genus got to Germany and died at Battle of Lutzen against Wallenstein
Bishop Jacques Bossuet Chief theorists of divine-right mon.; P Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
Edict of Fontainebleau 1685 Louis XIV, destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools
Versailles Residence of the king, reception hall for state affairs, office building for members of king's gov, home of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers
Jean-Baptise Colbert Controller general of finances for Louis XIV; increase wealth and power of France through general adherence to mercantilism; gov regulation of E activities
Peace of Utrecht War of Spanish Succession, United Provinces fought to prevent a Bourbon dynasty from taking over Europe(Louis XIV); throne of Spain and France were to remain seperate
Treaty of Karlowitz Ottomans made siege to Vienna and Austrians defeated the Ottomans; Austria took over Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia
Romanovs Aristocratic dynasty started by Michael Romanov 1613-1917
Hohenzollerns Prussia dynasty started in Brandenburg 1415; Fredericks brought it to greatness
Saint Petersburg S gatherigs 3 times a week were held here during Peter the Great's rule
Great Norther War Peter the Great vs Charles XII(Sweden), defeated Charles at Battle of Poltava; Peace of Nystadt, Peter gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia
Poland's Sejm Polish diet, 2-chamber assembly where landowners dominated townspeople and lawyers; mon shared power with Sejm
Stuarts Dynasty that took over after Tudors(Queen Elizabeth), King James I of Enland, Charles II(son) lost England to Cromwell
Levellers Had ideas of freedom of speech, R toleration, and democratic rep; called for annual Parliaments, women equality, and care for the poor; Cromwell smashed them by force
Test Act Catholics couldn't have positions in gov, military, navy, or universities in England
Peace of Pyrenees 1659, War of Spanish Succession, France gained the Spanish Netherlands and Arois
Intendants Royal officers sent by Richelieu to execute orders of the central gov
War of League of Augsburg 1689-1697, Spain, HRE, United Provinces, Sweden, and England vs Louis XIV Treaty of Ryswick allowed him to keep Strasbourg and part of Alsace
War of Spanish Succession 1702-1713 England, United Provinces, Hasburg Austria, German Staes vs France and Spain to stop Bourbon dynasty; treaty of Utrecht and of Rastatt
Philip III/IV Philip III spent a fortune on his court and allowed Lerma to run the country; Philip IV advisor, Gaspar de Guzman did alot to help but war deprived Spain
Boyars Russian nobility
Procurator Layman that's head of Holy Synod who represented the interests of the tsar and assured Peter of effective domination of the church
Gentry Well-to-do landowners below the nobility
Descartes Made theory on the doubt that seperated mind from matter, father of rationalism
World Machine Conceived as operating absolutely in time, space, and motion
Pracelsus Philippus Aureolus von Hoheheim hoped to change medicine with chem ph(macrocosm-microcosm analogy), chem reactions of the universe are in humans
Vesalius On Anatomical Procedures, anatomy with hands on dissection, found blood vessels originated from the heart
William Harvey On the Motion of the Heart and Blood, based on obs and experiments, heart was center of circulation and blood makes circut as it passes through the body
Cartesian Dualism duality b/w mind and body by Descartes
Empiricism Part of sci method, inductive principles, carefully organized experiments and thorough, systematic observations
Spinoza Philosophe believed in pantheism or monism; Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner; tried to rationalize God, humans,and their actions/emotions
Pascal French sci tried to keep sci and R unified,Pensees: tried to convert rationalists to Christianity through reason and emotions
Spinoza Philosophe believed in pantheism or monism; Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner; tried to rationalize God, humans,and their actions/emotions
Pascal French sci tried to keep sci and R unified,Pensees: tried to convert rationalists to Christianity through reason and emotions
Pietism Movement in Germany lead by Zinzendorf and Moravian Brethren to foster a personal and deeper devotion of God
Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu's work, 1748, treatise was comparative study of govs to apply the sci method to the S and P to ascertain the "natural laws" governing the S relationships of humans
Cult Relativism European intellectuals began to evaluate their civ relative to others, practice of reason
Cosmopolition Sophisticated and international, enlightenment movement
Separation of Powers Doctrine enunciated by Montesquieu in the 18c that separates executive, legislative, and judicial powers; England
E Liberalism Physiocrats and Adam Smith laid foundation of E liberty; gov doesn't interfere with an individual's E
Romanticism movement in 19c, emphasis on heart and sentiment
Rococo Style that stressed majesty, power,grace, and gentle action; rejected geometrical patterns
Neoclassicism Style that recaptures dignity and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece, Jacques-Louis David: Oath of the Horatii
Progroms Jewish communities were looted and massacred
Wsley Anglican Minister, had mystical experience and became missionary of English people
Louis XV Weak and lazy king of France, Madame de Pompadour influenced gov decisions
King George Hanoverian dynasty after death okf Queen Anne(Stuart), relied on Robert Walpole since he could not speak English
William Pitt Spokesman became prime minister acquired Canada and India in 7 Years' War
Pragmatic Sanction Different European powers agreed to recognize Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa as his legal heir
Primogeniture Practice of treating the first son as the favorit
Jethro Tull Discovered that using a hoe to keep the soil loose allowed air and moisture to reach plants and enabled them to grow better
Water Frame Invented by Richard Arkwright; powered by horse aor water, turned out yarn faster than cottage spinning wheels
Tithes Portion of harvest or income paid by peasants to church
Created by: 1216549400