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Chapter 13

Reformations and Religious Wars

TermDefinition
Priesthood of all believers Protestants believe that through Christ they have been given direct access to God
Jesuites (Society of Jesus) founded in 1540 by Loyala, had three main goals: reform the church through education and spread the Gospel to pagan people.
Ignatious Loyola founder of Jesuits
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions (Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office) Spain persecuted Christian Moors and Christian Jews who were suspected of backsliding to their faiths. Italy's Pops Paul IV issued a papal bull accusing Jews of killing Christ and ordering that Jews be placed in ghettos in the papal states.
Baroque Art Encouraged by the papacy and the Jesuits it began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of the Catholic Church.
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly a witty satire poking fun at political, social, and especially religious institutions; and, most important, a new Latin translationof the New Testament alongside the first printed edition of the Greek text.
Martin Luther Augustinian monk who propelled the wave of movements we now call the Reformation.
95 Theses When Luther criticized the selling of indulgences but went futher than others before him by questioning the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences.
Protestant work ethic Calvinists later emphasized the importance of hard work and accompanying financial success as a sign that God was pleased
Teresa de Avila a nun who reformed the order of the Carmelites, an ascetic who had mystical visions and communications from God. Charismatic and controversial, she founded monasteries throughout Spain
Catholic (counter) Reformation the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant reformation
Council of Trent 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church (1545–63), highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform and for its dogmatic definitions that clarified virtually every doctrine contested by the Protestants
Index of Prohibited Books adopted at the Fifth Lateran Council in 1515, then confirmed by the Council of Trent in 1546.
Charles V Emperor, that was allied with the pope, who tried to maintain religious unity in Europe.
German Peasants War, Twelve Articles An event that lasted through 1524-1525 where peasants demanded the end of tithes and serfdom, and other relations of feudalism that oppressed peasantry.
Peace of Augsburg, 1555 An agreement that temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism. It resulted in permanent religious division of Germany.
Huguenots French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France. Especially strong among the nobility although Calvinism saw converts from every social class.
Puritans Pressured Elizabeth I for more reforms but were largely kept at bay. Later established colonies in America in a region that came to be known as New England: e.g. Massachusetts, Connecticut. Victorious in the English Civil War. (1642-49)
English Reformation A series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Catholic Church.
John Calvin A influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
Predestination Doctrine that all events have been willed by God.
"elect/visible saints" People who appeared to be godly Christian people who would go to heaven when they died
Church of England (Angilican Church) Church created in England as a result of political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope; the Pope wouldn't let Henry VIII get a divorce
Act of Supremacy Proclaimed Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England in 1534
Statute of the Six Articles Upheld the seven sacraments, maintained Catholic theology, and replaced the authority of the pope with that of a monarch
Simony Sale of church offices
Nepotism Favoring family members in the appointment of Church officials
Elizabethan Settlement Outward conformity to Church of England and uniformity in ceremonies- but in private ok to be Protestant; created by Queen Elizabeth to promote peace in England
Thirty-Nine Article The official statement of the beliefs of the church of England. They established a moderate form of Protestantism
Henry VIII Ruled from 1509-1547; broke away from the Catholic Church and formed the Anglican Church
Mary Tudor "Bloody Mary" daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics, "bloody Mary"
Elizabeth I This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Politique A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France)
Catherine of Aragon First wife of Henry VIII who had her marriage annulled when she was unable to provide him with a son; mother of Mary Tudor
Anabaptist Viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the churning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
Tragedy at Munster Anabaptist extremists took power over Munster; Anabaptists in the city forced the Catholics and Lutherans to either convert or emigrate; Munster was blockaded by besieging armies and under and under pressure transformed into an Old Testament theocracy.
Created by: birmingham