Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

AP European History

Renaissance Europe

Glossary TermDefinition
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Byzantine Empire Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Visconti Established themselves as the dukes of Milan and extended their power over all of Lombardy. worked to build a strong centralized state.
Treaty of Lodi 1454, settled decades of warfare between the city states, established a balance of power between the major Italian city states and maintained relative stability in the peninsula for a half a century, the system collapsed in 1494 with the French invasion
Ferdinand and Isabella The king and queen of Spain who gave Columbus the funds that he needed to find a route to Asia.
Converses Jewish converts to Christianity in Spain
Auto da fe a public confession which was one of the punishments if found guilty of practicing one’s old religion and not Christianity, other punishments were anything from monetary fines to burning at the stake
Pragmatic Sanction 1438, Charles Charles V of Austria's written document that allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, to rule Austria and keep her land after her father dies.
The Ottoman Empire Lead by Sultan Mehmed II, a serious threat to Christian Europe, declared a holy war and laid siege to Constantinople and won, earning Mehmed II the name of the “Conqueror”
Muscovy A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire.
Marco Polo A Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer, the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa.
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. He was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Pedro Alvares Portuguese explorer who reached and claimed Brazil accidentally in 1500 on a voyage to India.
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China.
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Aztec Built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Mayan People of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy.
Treaty of Tordesillas In 1494 an agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Jacques Cartier French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Constantinople Capital of the Byzantine Empire, named after Constantine I. Sacked by the Turks in 1453.
Humanism A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Cosimo de Medici Rich and relatively powerful Florentine Banker who sponsored the Platonic Academy and other early renaissance establishments.
Platonic Academy A discussion group sponsored by Cosimo de Medici and headed by Marsilo Ficino. It discussed the philosophies and ideals of Plato and his followers.
Marsilo Ficino Headed the Platonic Academy in Florence. Cosimo de Medici was his Patron.
“returning to the sources” Renaissance term that referred to the fixation with Ancient Greecan and Roman classics.
Johannes Gutenberg German Goldsmith and inventor of the Printing Press. His most famous books are the Gutenberg bibles.
Scriptoria A workshop in which documents were copied by hand for sale to upper and middle class.
Patrons Rich upper or middle class people who would give money and support to artists and intellectuals.
Leonardo Da Vinci Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. He made engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter he is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Donatello Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
Michelangelo An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect. He sculpted the David and the Pietà, painted Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
Cesare Borgia Served as the model for a ruthless ruler in Machiavelli’s “The Prince”.
Ospedale degli Innocenti In 1445, the Florentine government opened this shelter to deal with the large with the large amounts of abandoned children.
Sandro Botticelli One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. Painted The Birth of Venus and Springtime or Primavera.
Jan Van Eyck Widely considered the greatest of the painters from the north countries. Attributed with the creation of oil painting.
Visual perspective First mastered by Filippo Brunelleschi in the early 1440's. Important part of renaissance advancements to art.
Lorenzo Ghiberti Headed the project to create a set of bronze doors for the baptistry of the cathedral in Florence. His "Gates of Paradise" showed old testament scenes created with sense of visual perspective that was considered revolutionary for the time.
Filippo Brunelleschi Famous Italian architect who designed the dome for the cathedral in Florence.
"Fat People" Term used by Florentines to describe 30% of the urban population, including wealthier merchant, the leading artisans, notaries, doctors and other professionals.
"Little People" A term used by the Florentines to describe 60% of all households, the workers, small merchants and artisans.
Giorgio Vasari An art historian who first used the term "Renaissance" to describe the art of “rare men of genius” such as his contemporary Michelangelo. Through their works, he thought, the glory of the classical past had been reborn after centuries of darkness.
Renaissance A French word meaning “rebirth,” first used by art historian and critic Giorgio Vasari to refer to the rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity.
Communes Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political and economic independence from local nobles.
Popolo Disenfranchised common people in Italian cities who resented their exclusion from power.
Created by: alfromcanada