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Chapter 14

European Exploration and Conquest

Conversos Jews who had converted to Christianity but were now suspected of backsliding into Judaism.
Charles V This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
creoles Spaniards born in the New World to Spanish parents
"Old Imperialism" Characterized by establishment of posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetration inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations.
Francis Xavier led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan.
Dutch East India Company founded in 1602 and became the major force behind Dutch imperialism.
Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mesoamerica by 1521
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru
"Golden Age of Spain" Resembled more the "New Imperialism" of the late 19th and early 20th century by outright conquering entire regions and subjecting their populations.
Encomienda system Amerindians worked for an owner for certain number of days per week but retained other parcels of land to work for themselves
Meztizos Spaniards married Amerindian women creating children of mixed white and Native American descent.
Bartolomew de las Casas Priest and former conquistador whose father had accompanied Columbus on his 2nd voyage
Treaty of Tordesillas Division of new world discovered by Columbus between Spain and Portugal at the behest of Pope Leo V .
Vasco Nunez de Balboa Discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama in 1513.
Ferdinand Magellan His ship was the first to circumnavigate the globe and charter the enormous size of the Pacific Ocean .
Conquistadores Created Spain's New World empire by conquering Amerindians Ex: Hernandez Cortes & Francisco Pizzarro
Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor elected in 1273. He began a long line of Hapsburg emperors. His marriage caused the Holy Roman Empire to gain the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy.
Holy Roman Empire An empire consisting primarily of a loose confederation of German and Italian territories under the suzerainty of an emperor and existing from the 9th or 10th century to 1806.
Hapsburgs Royal family of Holy Roman Empire.
Mercantilism A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state based on belief that a nation's international power was based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver
"God, glory, gold" Primary motives of exploration
Ferdinand and Isabella The king and queen of Spain in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. They united their country and sponsored the exploration of the New World by Christopher Columbus.
Reconquista In medieval Spain and Portugal, a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims (Moors), who had occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century.
Spanish Inquisition The institution that guarded the orthodoxy of Catholicism in Spain, chiefly by the persecution of heretics, Jews, etc, especially from the 15th to the 17th centuries.
Tomás de Torquemada The First Grand Inquisitor of Spain and was a nephew of the celebrated theologian and cardinal, Juan de Torquemada.
Middle class (Bourgeoisie) denoted the wealthy stratum of the that originated during the latter part of the Middle Ages
Columbian Exchange Exchange of good and ideas between Europe, Americas, and Africa. Goods from America's where bananas, tobacco, and coffee. Goods from Africa were good and slaves.
Small pox Disease in which the Aztecs suffered which also caused a defeat from Hernan Cortes and his 600 troops.
Prince Henry the Navigator Financed numerous expeditions along the west African coastline in hopes of finding gold; ushered in a new era of European exploration
Bartholomew Dias He rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488
Vasco Da Gama Building on Dias' route,he completed an all water expedition to India in 1498; Brought back Indian goods creating a huge demand for them in Europe; was a cause of the economic and political decline of the Italian city-states.
Amerigo Vespucci Explored Brazil; Perhaps the first European to realize that he had discovered a new continent in the New World.
Christopher Columbus eager for Spain to compete with Portuguese expansion, Ferdinand and Isabella financed his voyage; 1492, he reached the Bahamas, believing he had reached the 'Indies' somewhere west of India.
Columbian Exchange Refers to transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New World.
smallpox an acute, highly contagious, febrile disease,caused by a pustular eruption. Brought over by Europeans to the new world and victimized and killed many Natives due to their lack of immunity and resistence to this disease.
Syphilis a chronic bacterial disease that is contracted chiefly by infection during sexual intercourse, but also congenitally by infection of a developing fetus. Victimized and killed Natives due to their lack of immunity and resistance to this disease
Created by: birmingham