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AP European History

The Reformation

Charles V This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
95 Thesis Written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther displayed his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences.
Diet of Worms A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
Huldrych Zwingli A Catholic priest in Zurich. He was influenced both by the Christian humanism of Erasmus and by the reforms of Luther. He openly attached abuses in the Catholic Church. He wanted believers to have more control over the Church.
Colloquy of Marburg Zwingli and Luther try to unite but it doesn't work because of different views. Remained divided forever. They disagreed about transubstantiation.
John Calvin A religious reformer who believed in predestination (that God knows before a person is born whether they are going to heaven or hell) and a strict sense of morality for society.
Thomas Muntzer A radical German Anabaptist who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26. Luther despised him for his politicization of the Reformation, and they disagreed over several religious doctrines.
German Peasant’s War This was a massive rural uprising that threatened the entire social order of Germany. Inspired by Luthers writings. This eventually split the reform movement in the end the princes managed to defeat the peasants.
Menno Simmons The moderate Anabaptist leader that founded the Mennonites. He set the example for future of Anabaptism.
Gymnasia A school for boys. It was intended to prepare students for university study.
The Jesuits Founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola in the 1530s. The religious order grew tremendously and helped awake a renewed sense of zeal and discipline among laypeople. Their reform helped bring fallen-away Catholics back to the Church..
Henry VIII Is famous for having been married six times, his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532.
“Defender of the Faith” This title was awarded to King Henry VIII after writing the book "Defence of the Seven Sacraments"
Act of Supremacy, 1529 An Act of the Parliament of England under King Henry VIII of England declared that he was 'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England'
Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII of England's first wife. Henry tried to have their twenty-four year marriage annulled in part because of her inability to produce male heirs.
Thomas Cramner One of King Henry VIII's loyal servants who was also an archbishop of Canterbury
Huguenots This was the name of the French Protestants, more specifically French Calvinistic Protestants
Schmalkaldic League A group of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire who vowed to defend each other’s territories if Charles V were to attack.
Peace of Augsburg, 1555 was a treaty signed between Charles V, and the Schmalkaldic League. It allowed the princes to choose to be either Lutheran or Catholic.
Council of Trent 1545-1563 It convened three times as a response to the reformation. It was to interpret the catholic church’s doctrines regarding salvation, the sacraments, the biblical canon and creating a Mass that was to be used around the world.
Ignatius Loyola The founder of the Jesuits.
Francis Xavier He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Christian Humanists These people were outraged by the abuse of power of the church and dreamed of ideal societies based on peace and morality. They also sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world.
Indulgence This was a forgiveness of sin by performing certain religious tasks such as "going on pilgrimage, attending mass, doing holly works, or giving money. Used by the church in order to make a greater profit.
Martin Luther a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices
Predestination This was a theory by John Calvin which stated that God had ordained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation, even before the creation of the world. Therefore, no matter what one did in life it would not effect God's plan.
Anabaptists These people believed that only adults could believe and accept baptism and therefore the baptism of infants was invalid. They considered themselves to be true Christians unblemished by sin and did not support violence but preferred peace and salvation.
Desiderius Erasmus A Dutch scholar who was a representative of the Christian humanists. He dominated the humanist world of early sixteenth century Europe. He earned a reputation of being very dedicated to education reform.
Thomas More He served loyally as a royal ambassador for King Henry the VIII. He became lord chancellor. However, tiring of court life and Henry’s control over the clergy he resigned. He was executed for his criticism of the king.
Utopia Written by Thomas More describes it describes an imaginary land which, was intended as a critique of his own society. This society was heaven compared to life in England as it was based on a system of equality.
Created by: alfromcanada