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lung path

lung pathology

extrinsic asthma type I hypersensitvity response involving IgE bound to mast cells, begins in childhood
intrinsic asthma asthma associated with chronic bronchitis, and exercise or cold induced asthma, begins in adult life
bronchial asthma episodic dyspnea and wheezing expiration caused by narrowing of the airways, increased sensitivity of air passages to stimuli
bronchial athma bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy, hyperplasia of goblet cells, thickening'hyalinization of basement membrane, proliferation of eosinophils; complicated by superimposed infection, chronic bronchitis, and pulmonary emphysema
chronic bronchitis productive cough over 3 months in 2 years, linked to cigarette smoking, air pollution, infection, hyperplasia of mucus-secreting submucousal glands, may lead to cor pulmonale
centrilobular emphysema dlilation of respiratory bronchioles; most often upper part of pulmonary lobes
panacinar emphysema dilation of entire acinus, distributed unifromly throughout lung; associated with loss of elasticity ( alpha one antitrypsin)
paraseptal emphysema dilation invvlving mainly distal part of acinus; tends to localize subjacent to pleura and interlobar septa; associated occasionaly with large subpleural bullae
irregular emphysema irregular involvement of aciuns with scarring within the walls of enlarged air spaces; usually a complication of various inflammatory process
bronchiectasis permanent abnormal bronchial dilation; predisposed by chronic sinusitis; most often involves lwer lobes of both lungs; characterized by copious purulent sputum, hemoptysis, and recurrent pulmonary infection that may lead to lung abcess
ARDS produced by diffuse alveolar damage with increase in alveolar capillary permeability, causing leakage of protein rich fluid into alveoli; marked by formation of intra-alveolar hyaline membrane composed of fibrin and cellular debris
simple coal worker pneumoconiosis marked by coal macules around bronchioles formed by ingestion of coal dust particles by macrophages; most cases is incosequential and prodcues no disability
progressive massive fibrosis marked by fibrotic nodules filled with necrotic black fluid; can result in bronchiectasis, pulmonary HTN or death from respiratory failure or right sided heart failure
silicosis marked by silicotic nodules that enlarge and eventually obstruct the airways and blood vessels; increases susceptibility to TB; damage to macrophages intiates inflammatory respnse mediated by lysosomal enzymes and various chemical mediators
asbestosis leads to diffuse interstitial fibrosis; characterized by ferruginous bodies (prussian blue)
asbestosis dense hyalinized fibrocalcific plaques of parietal pleura; predisposition to bronchogenic carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma
bronchopneumonia staph aureus. H. influenza, klebsiella; characterized by patchy distribution involving one or more lobes
lobar pneumonia strep pneumoniae; characterized by intra-alveolar exudate; may involve an entire lobe
lung abscess localized area of suppuration within parenchma, usually resulting form bronchial obstruction or spiration of gastric contents; seen especially in pateints predisposed to aspiration (LOC, EtOH)
lung abscess frequently caused by staph, pseudomonas, Klebsiella, or proteus; clinically manifest by fever, foul smelling, purulent sputum
squamous cell carcinoma central location; appears as a hilar mass and frequently results in cavitation; clearly linked to smoking; may be marked by inappropriate parathyroid hormone like activity with resultant hyperclacemia
Created by: swohlers