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Carry blood from the heart to all the cells of the body Arteries
Flat, leaf-shaped structures that comprise the valve of the heart and prevent the backflow of blood Leaflets
Tubular space or channel within an organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, or tube Lumen
Backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening Regurgitation
Circular muscles found in a tubular structure or hallow organ that constrict or dilate to regulate passage of substances through its opening Sphincters
Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of disease, medications, or physiological processes Vasoconstriction
Widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls Vasodilation
Thickness of a measure of how resistant a liquid is flowing Viscosity
The outer coat, composed of connective tissue that provides strength and flexibility Tunica externa
The middle layer, composed of smooth muscle Tunica media
The thin, inner lining of the lumen of the vessel composed of epithelial cells that provide a smooth surface on the inside of the vessel Tunica intima
Surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart Pulse
Smaller arteries Arterioles
Microscopic vessels that join the arterial system and the venous system Capillaries
Return blood to the heart Veins
Smaller veins Venules
Methods used by the veins to return blood to the heart • Skeletal muscle contraction • gravity • respiratory activity • valves
Small structures within veins that prevent the backflow of blood Valves
A muscular pump that propels blood to the entire body through a closed vascular network Heart
Sac that enclosed the heart Pericardium
The three layers of the pericardium • endocardium • myocardium • epicardium
Serous membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and its valves Endocardium
The muscular layer of the heart Myocardium
The outermost layer of the heart Epicardium
Four chambers of the heart • right atrium • left atrium • right ventricle • left ventricle
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation Pulmonary circulation
The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the entire body Systemic circulation
Two large veins that returns blood from the body to the heart • superior vena cava • inferior vena cava
Blood passed through this valves from the right atrium to the right ventricle Tricuspid valve
When the heart contracts, blood leaves the right ventricle by the way of the... Left and right pulmonary artery
Prevents regurgitation of blood into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery Pulmonic valve or pulmonary semilunar valve
Carry oxygenated blood back to the heart Two left pulmonary veins and two right pulmonary veins
Blood passed through this valve from the left atrium to the left ventricle Mitral (bicuspid) valve
Oxygenated blood leave the heart through the largest artery of the body called the ... Aorta
The aorta contains what valve Aortic semilunar valve or aortic valve
The artery vascularizung the left side of the heart Left coronary artery
The artery vascularizing the right side of the heart Right coronary artery
The left coronary artery divides into two branches called... • left anterior descending artery • circumflex artery
Specialized cardiac tissue that has the sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses Conduction tissue
Conduction tissue consists of what four masses of highly specialized cells that possess the characteristics of both cardiac and nervous tissue? • sinoatrial node • atrioventricular node • bundle of His (AV bundle) • purkinje fibers
Located in the upper portion of the right atrium and possess its own intrinsic rhythm Sinoatrial node
Can alter the cardiac rate Autonomic nervous system
Located at the base of the right atrium. Causing the atria to contract. Atrioventricular node
Tract of conduction fibers Bundle of His (or AV bundle)
These fibers extend up the ventricle walls Purkinje fibers
The sequence of the four structures responsible for conduction of a contraction impulse is as follows: SA node > AV node > bundle of His > Purkinje fibers
Instrument that records impulses on graph paper Electrocardiograph
Depolarization (contraction) of the atria P wave
The depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles QRS complex
Repolarization (recovery) of the ventricles T wave
The force exerted by blood against the arterial walls during two phases of a heartbeat Blood pressure
The contraction phase when the blood is forced out of the heart Systole
The relaxation phase when the ventricles are filling with blood Diastole
Measures blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
Factors that influence blood pressure • resistance of blood flow in blood vessels • pumping action of the heart • viscosity of blood • elasticity of arteries • quantity of blood in the vascular system
CF: Aneurysm (widening of blood vessel) aneurysm
Aneurysmorrhaphy Suture of an aneurysm
-rrhaphy Suture
CF: vessel (usually blood or lymph) angio or vasculo
CF: Aorta aorto
Angioplasty Surgical repair of a vessel
Procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores blood flow using a balloon-tipped catheter Angioplasty
Vaculitis Inflammation of a vessel
Aortostenosis Narrowing of the aorta
-plasty Surgical repair
-itis Inflammation
-stenosis Narrowing,structure
CF: artery arterio
-rrhexis Rupture
Arteriorrhexis Rupture of the artery
CF: arteriole arteriolo
Arteriolitis Inflammation of the arteriole
CF: atrium atrio
Atriomegaly Enlargement of the atrium
-megaly Enlargement
CF: fatty plague athero
Atheroma Tumor of fatty plaque
Formed when fatty plaque builds up on the inner lining of arterial walls Atheroma
-oma Tumor
CF: heart cardio or corono
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart
Coronary Pertaining to the heart
The most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death in the United States in men and women Coronary artery disease
CF: electricity electro
Electrocardiogram Recording the electricity of the heart
-gram Record, recording
Helps detect many heart problems including heart attacks, arrhythmia, and heart failure Electrocardiogram
CF: embolus (plug) embolo
Embolectomy Excision (removal) of an embolus
-ectomy Excision, removal
Performed in emergency situations to open blood vessels and reestablish blood flow Embolectomy
CF: blood vessel hemangio
Hemangioma Tumor of a blood vessel
Also called strawberry marks and found mostly in neonates, are benign tumor cells that line blood vessels and usually disappear over time Hemangiomas
CF: muscle Myo
Myocardial Pertaining to muscle of the heart
-al Pertaining to
Vein Phlebo or veno
Cardiology Medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system
Phlebectasis Dilation of the vein
-ectasis Dilation, expansion
Venostasis Standing still vein
-stasis Standing still
Also called phlebostasis is an abnormally slow blood flow in the veins and is a major risk factor for clot formation Venostasis
CF: Hardening; sclera (white of eye) Sclero
CF: septum Septo
-osis Abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
Arteriosclerosis Abnormal condition, increasing, hardening of the artery
Septostomy Forming an opening (mouth) in the septum
-stomy Forming an opening (mouth)
Temporary procedure performed to increase systemic oxygenation in infants with congenital heart defects until corrective surgery can be performed Septostomy
CF: pulse Sphygmo
-oid Resembling
Sphygmoid Resembling a pulse
CF; blood clot Thromb
Thrombolysis Separation,destruction, loosening of a blood clot
-lysis Separation; destruction; loosening
Enzymes that destroy blood clots are infused into the occluded vessel Thrombolysis
CF: valve Valvo or valvulo
Valvotomy Incision of the valve
Commonly involves use of a balloon catheter passed through a blood vessel in the groin to gain access to a stenosed valve of the heart Valvotomy
Valvuloplasty Surgical repair of the valve
-tomy Incision
CF: ventricle (of the heart of brain) ventriculo
Ventricular Pertaining to the ventricle
-ar Pertaining to
-cardia Heart condition
Tachycardia Rapid heart condition
-stenosis Narrowing, stricture
Aortostenosis Narrowing of the aorta
Brady- Slow
Bradycardia Slow heart conditioning
Endo- In, within
Endovascular Pertaining to in the vessel
Extra- Outside
Extravascular Pertaining to outside the vessel
Peri- Around
Pericardial Pertaining to around the heart
Trans- Across
Transseptal Pertaining to across the septum
-al Pertaining to
Cardiologist Specialist of the heart
Inadequate blood supply to the myocardium Ischemia
Chest pain and tightness Angina
Excessive sweatinf Diaphoresis
Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body Hemiplegia
Muscle pain Myalgia
Elevated level of fatty substances in the blood Hyperlipidemia
Drugs that slow down or reverse fat buildup Statins
Drugs that control blood pressure Antihypertensives
Drugs that reduce thrombus formation Anticoagulants
Surgical removal of fatty deposits from inside the artery Endarterectomy
Progressive degenerative disease of arterial walls that causes them to become thickened and brittle, restricting the flow of blood to tissues and organs Arteriosclerosis
Any disease that interferes with the ability of the coronary arteries to supply blood to the myocardium Coronary artery disease
Causes of CAD • Arteriosclerosis • hypertension • diabetes • hyperlipidemia • radiation therapy to the chest
Death of the heart muscle Myocardial infarction
Common causes of arteriosclerosis Buildup of a plaque like substance composed of: • cholesterol • lipids • cellular debris
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves Endocarditis
Localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually in an artery Aneurysm
Chest pain caused by obstructions or spasms of the coronary arteries that decrease blood flow to the myocardium Angina
Irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart Arrhythmia
Abnormally slow HR, usually fewer than 60 BPM in a resting adult Bradycardia
Abnormally rapid, in coordinating quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles Fibrillation
Interference with the normal transmission of electrical impulses from the SA node to the purkinje fibers Heart block
Abnormally fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 BPM Tachycardia
Soft, blowing sound heard on auscultation and associated valvular action, the movement of blood as it passes an obstruction, or both; also called murmur Bruit
Disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function Cardiomyopathy
Narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta Coarctation
Intravascular mass that dislodges from one part of the body and causes a blockage in another area, commonly leading to life-threating situations Embolism
Disorder that occurs when the heart is unable to effectively pump the quantity of blood required by the body Heart failure
Excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood Hyperlipidemia
-pathy Disease
-ism Condition
Hyper- Excessive, above normal
Lipid Fat
-emia Blood condition
Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg Hypertention
Low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg Hypotension
-tension To stretch
Hypo- Under, below, deficient
Structural defect in which the mitral valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction (systole), resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood Mitral valve prolapse
Sensation of an irregular heartbeat, commonly described pounding, racing, skipping a beat, or flutter Palpitation
Common circulatory disorder characterized by a reduced flow of blood to the extremities, especially in the legs, resulting in muscle cramping and pain, and commonly the result of artherosclerosis Peripheral artery disease
Inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs (more commonly the legs) Phlebitis
Serious pathological condition resulting from rheumatic fever, commonly causing permanent scarring of the heart valves, especially the mitral valve Rheumatic heart disease
Partial or complete loss of consciousness usually caused by a decreased supply of blood to the brain; also called fainting Syncope
Abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops in a vessel and obstructs it at the site of its formation Thrombosis
Blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or the thighs; also called deep venous thrombosis Deep vein thrombosis
Normal blood pressure range Systolic: less than 120 mm Hg Diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg
Prehypertension range Systolic: 120-139 mm Hg Diastolic: 80-89 mm Hg
Stage 1 Hypertension Range Systolic: 140-159 mm Hg Diastolic: 90-99 mm Hg
Stage 2 Hypertension range Systolic: 160 mm Hg or higher Diastolic: 100 mm Hg or higher
Procedure that graphically records the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using metal electrodes applied to the chest, arm, and legs Electrocardiography
Procedure that uses small, portable system to record and store the electrical activity of the heart over 24-48 hr period; also called event monitor test Holter monitor test
ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (bicycle or treadmill) Stress test
Blood test that measures the presence and amount of several substances released by the heart when it is damaged or under stress, also called cardiac enzyme test Cardiac biomarkers
Series of blood tests (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease Lipid panel
Procedure that records a radiograph image of a blood vessel (angiogram) after injection of a contrast medium Angiography
Angiography of the aorta and its branches after injection of a contrast medium Aortography
Specialized type of angiography that helps diagnose stenosis or obstruction of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart muscle Coronary angiography
Ultrasonography used to assess the direction and speed of blood flow through blood vessels by reflecting sound waves off red blood cells; also called ultrasonography using sound pitch Doppler US
Ultrasound procedure that determines blood flow problems caused by blood clots, plaque, or tears on the walls of the carotid arteries Carotid artery US
Ultrasound test that produces moving images of blood passing through the heart, valves, and chambers, and assesses cardiac output Echocardiography
Echo- Repeated sound
-graphy Process of recording
Noninvasive imaging test using a radioactive tracer in conjunction with a stress test to show how well blood flows through (perfuses) the heart muscle at rest and during exercise; also called a nuclear stress test Myocardial perfusion imaging
Myocardial perfusion test that involves injection of a radioactive tracer into the blood while a gamma camera moves in a circle around the patient to create individual images as “slices” of the heart (tomography) Single-photon emission computed tomography
Specialized MRI procedure that provides images of the heart chambers, valves, major vessels, and pericardium Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Type of MRI that provides highly detailed images of blood vessels Magnetic resonance angiography
Nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to detect how effectively the heart walls move as they contract and then calculates the ejection fraction rate (amount of blood the ventricle can pump out in one contraction) Multiple-gated acquisition scan
Created by: kaciebrooke
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