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|A set of sounds and symbols that is used for communication.
|This means that two people can understand each other when speaking.
|A published, widely distributed, and purposely taught language. Governments help sustain these by making them official and requiring literacy in the language for government jobs.
|Variants of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines.
|A group of contiguous dialects where the dialects nearest to each other geographically are the most similar and the dialects farther apart are least similar.
|A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
|Multiple languages that have a shared but fairly distant origin.
|Divisions within a language family that have more definitive commonalities and more recent common origins.
|A word that has the same origin, that is derived from the same word.
|Process where discrete, new languages are eventually formed from one language. This occurs when people speaking two dialects of a language are relatively isolated from each other and have little spatial interaction.
|This is tracking consonants and cognates to reconstruct elements of a prior common language; linguists can provide insight into how languages fit together and where the branches were once joined.
|This is collapsing two languages into one.. This occurs when people speaking two languages have frequent and consistent spatial interaction with each other.
|Languages become extinct either when all descendants perish , which can happen when an entire people succumb to disease or invaders, or when descendants use another language and abandon learning and speaking their native language.
|Idea that early speakers of Proto-Indo-European left the hearth area and moved westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues.
|The theory that the Proto-Indo-European language spread with the diffusion of agriculture.
|A vernacular language is one used in everyday interaction among a group of people.
|A language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.
|When people speaking two or more languages are in contact and they combine parts of their languages in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
|A pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary, and has become the native language of a group of people.
|These are place-names that allow us to see location as a place and imparts a certain character to a place.