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Independence Movemen

SHS MWH Unit 5

TermDefinition
estate one of three social classes in France in the late 1700s
Estates-General an assembly of representatives from all three social classes in France
Old Regime the social and political system of France in the 1770s
Louis XVI king of France in the 1770s and 1780s, known for his extravagant spending and being executed in the French Revolution
Marie Antoinette queen of France who spent so much money that she was called “Madame Deficit”; killed in French Revolution
Tennis Court Oath pledge by Third Estate delegates to meet until they created a new constitution
National Assembly first deliberate act of revolution by France’s Third Estate ; new law-making body that replaced Estates General
Great Fear wave of senseless panic that spread through the French country side after the Storming of the Bastille
Maximilien Robespierre The Jacobin leader who ruled over the Reign of Terror, in which thousands of French citizens were executed
Reign of Terror period from mid1793-1794 when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Napoleon Bonaparte took over as Emperor of France after the French Revolution failed
Napoleonic Code a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
coup d’etat violent overthrow of the state
Battle of Trafalgar an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
Waterloo Battle where Napoleon was finally defeated by British, Austrian and Prussian forces
Congress of Vienna series of meetings of European powers to ensure the security and stability of a new European order after Napoleon’s defeat
Toussaint L’Ouverture leader of Haitian Independence – former slave.
Simon Bolivar Creole Venezuelan general Won independence for Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador
Jose de San Martin Argentine Creole Won independence for Argentina, Chile and Peru
Father Miguel Hidalgo started Mexican independence movement, followers were mestizos and natives.
Grito de Dolores event where Hidalgo rang the church bell and called for a revolution
Creole people who were the children of peninsulares, but born in the colonies.
Salutary Neglect When a law is not enforced by authorities
Declaration of Independence letter from the written by Thomas Jefferson explaining why the colonists want independence from England; based on Enlightenment ideals
Articles of Confederation first official government of the United States; weak because the states had all the power
US Constitution Document that created the current system of government based on Montesquieu's 3 branches of government
Bill of Rights first 10 amendments to the Constitution; protects individual rights
1st Estate Clergy, could hold political power too. Owned 10% of land; was 1% of population
2nd Estate Nobles, could hold political power. Owned 20% of the land; was 2% of population
3rd Estate 97% of population of France. Paid nearly all the taxes. Broken up into 3 groups: Bourgeoisie, City-Workers, Peasants
Marquis de Lafayette French soldier who helped America during the American Revolution; moderate leader during the French Revolution
Georges Danton Moderate leader during the French Revolution; executed during the Reign of Terror
Jean-Paul Marat Radical leader during the Reign of Terror; assassinated by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday Conservative supporter who assassinated Marat hoping to end the violence; executed during Reign of Terror
Olympe de Gouges author of Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; executed during the Reign of Terror
Policarpa Salavarrieta Woman who helped Colombian independence by spying on the Spanish. Captured and executed
Jose Maria Morelos follower of Hidalgo who tried to create a new government for Mexico, but was eventually captured by royalist (Spanish supporting) forces. He was executed in 1815.
Tupac Amaru II Peruvian man who led a rbellion against Spanish rule. Captured and executed in 1781
Jean-Jacques Dessalines 1st emperor of Haiti - led independence after L'Ouverture was killed. His heavy handed rule led to rebellions which eventually led to his death.
Storming of the Bastille July 14th 1789; French mob attacks federal prison, executes the guards and mayor; considered French Independence Day
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Document written by the National Assembly; declaring equality for all; freedom of speech, assembly, press, religion; inspired by DoI and Enlightenment ideas
Women's March 1789 - also known as the March of the Fishwives; event where the women of Paris marched to Versailles to protest the price of bread. Took the king and queen hostage
Great Fear 1789 - wave of violence in the French countryside where peasants destroyed manor homes and court houses in order to destroy legal tax documents
No Taxation Without Representation Slogan of the American Revolution - refers to the idea that colonists were not represented in Parliament; thus they were being denied their rights as British subjects
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Slogan of the French Revolution
Seven Years War (1756-1763) – England/Prussia vs France/Austria fought in Europe, no territory lost or gained here
French and Indian War (1754-1763) – England/(Native American allies and colonists) vs France/Indians (Native American allies); England wins with help of colonists. Then taxes colonists to pay for war debt.
Stamp Act 1765 British law passed to help pay for British troops stationed in the colonies during the Seven Years' War. Colonists had to pay a tax on various forms of papers, documents, and playing cards
Tea Act 1773 British law that forced colonists to order tea from the British East India Company and use company for all tea trade. It also put a new tax on tea.
Intolerable Acts 1774 laws passed by the British to punish colonists after the Boston Tea Party. These laws gave Britain control of Massachusetts and gave British soldiers the right to be quartered in colonists homes.
Committee of Public Safety Government of France during the Reign of Terror. Led by Robespierre. Purpose was to protect the revolution from all enemies (foreign and domestic).
Haitian Revolution 1791 and 1804, Africans slaves and their descendants overthrew the French government in Haiti and gained independence. Led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Nationalism identification with one's own nation and support for its interests, especially to the exclusion or detriment of the interests of other nations.
Created by: AGilstrap47
 

 



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