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Chapter 4

Human Geography

Culture group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Folk culture small, incorporates a homogeneous population, is typically rural, and maintains cultural traits by passing them down through generations
Popular culture large, incorporates heterogeneous populations, is typically urban, and quickly changes cultural traits.
Local culture group of people in a certain place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences and traits, and who work to preserve distinct customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
Material culture includes things people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and foods.
Nonmaterial culture includes beliefs, practices, aesthetics (what is seen as attractive), and values.
Hierarchical diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness. Specific type of expansion diffusion.
Hearth Area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates.
Customs practices that a group of people routinely follow.
Assimilation When a minority group loses distinct cultural traits, such as dress, food, or speech, and adopts the customs of the dominant culture. Can happen voluntarily or by force.
Indigenous local cultures People who see themselves as a community and also identify as indigenous, or original, to a place.
Context The physical and human geographies creating the place, environment, and space in which events occur and people act.
Neolocalism Conscious effort to define a sense of place for local or regional culture. Often used by local businesses, such as microbreweries, to identify local products with local or regional culture.
Ethnic neighborhoods Area within an urban area where a relatively large group of people from one ethnic group or local culture lives.
Gentrification Renewal or rebuilding of a lower income neighborhood into a middle- to upper-class neighborhood, which results in driving up property values and rents and the dispossession of lower income residents.
Culture appropriation the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit.
Commodification Transformation of goods and services into products that can be bought, sold, or traded.
Authenticity The idea that one place or experience is the true, actual one.
Distance decay Decreasing likelihood of diffusion with greater distance from the hearth.
Time-space compression Increasing connectedness between world cities from improved communication and transportation networks.
Music festival Concert event featuring multiple performers and additional entertainment that often lasts more than one day.
Hallyu (Hanryu) South Korean waves of popular culture, especially in music, television, and movies.
Reterritorialization a process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place and making it their own.
Stimulus diffusion A process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait.
Relocation diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them.
Cultural landscape the visible imprint of human activity on the land.
Placelessness Loss of uniqueness of a location so that one place looks like the next.
Convergence of cultural landscapes Merging of cultural landscapes that happens with broad diffusion of landscape traits.
Urban morphology the size and shape of a place’s buildings, streets, and infrastructure
Created by: kayla.giset
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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