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Chapter 4

Culture a group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Folk Culture is small, incorporates a homogeneous population, is typically rural, and maintains cultural traits by passing them down through generations.
Popular Culture large, incorporates heterogeneous populations, is typically urban, and quickly changes cultural traits.
Local Culture a group of people in a certain place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences and traits, and who work to preserve distinct customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
Material Culture includes things people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and foods.
Nonmaterial Culture beliefs, practices, aesthetics (what is seen as attractive), and values. What members of a local culture produce in their material culture reflects the beliefs and values of their nonmaterial culture.
Hierarchical Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness. Specific type of expansion diffusion.
Hearth Area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates
Customs practices that a group of people routinely follow
Assimilation When a minority group loses distinct cultural traits, such as dress, food, or speech, and adopts the customs of the dominant culture. Can happen voluntarily or by force.
Indigenous Local Cultures People who see themselves as a community (see local culture) and also identify as indigenous, or original, to a place.
Context The physical and human geographies creating the place, environment, and space in which events occur and people act.
Neolocalism seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world.
Ethnic Neighborhoods Area within an urban area where a relatively large group of people from one ethnic group or local culture lives.
Gentrification the renewal or rebuilding of a lower-income neighborhood
Cultural Appropriation the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own benefit
Commodification The process through which something (a name, a good, an idea, or even a person) that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought or sold becomes an object that can be bought, sold, and traded in the world market
Authenticity The idea that one place or experience is the true, actual one.
Distance Decay Decreasing likelihood of diffusion with greater distance from the hearth.
Time-space compression Increasing connectedness between world cities from improved communication and transportation networks
Music Festival Concert event featuring multiple performers and additional entertainment that often lasts more than one day.
Hallyu (Hanryu) waves of South Korean popular culture that move quickly through Asia and that have resulted in significant growth in the South Korean entertainment and tourism industries (Fig. 4.21).
Reterritorialization a process in which people start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and place and making it their own
Stimulus Diffusion A process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait.
Relocation Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them.
Cultural Landscape the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
Placelessness the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape to the point that one place looks like the next.
Convergence of cultural landscapes Merging of cultural landscapes that happens with broad diffusion of landscape traits.
Urban Morphology the size and shape of a place’s buildings, streets, and infrastructure
Created by: SchoolEnjoyer96
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