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CSA Chapter 6

The Ear

TermDefinition
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
aur/i ear
ot/o ear
myring/o eardrum
tympan/o eardrum
aer/o air or gas
salping/o tube
cerumin/o wax
-acusis hearing condition
external ear outer structures of the ear that collect sound
auricle projected part of the external ear
pinna projected part of the external ear
external acoustic meatus external passage for sounds collected from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
external auditory meatus external passage for sounds collected from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
cerumen a waxy substance secreted by glands located throughout the external canal
middle ear structure in the middle of the ear that vibrate sound from the tympanic membrane to the internal ear
tympanic membrane drum-like structure that receives sound collected in the external acoustic meatus and amplifies it through the middle ear
tympanum drum-like structure that receives sound collected in the external acoustic meatus and amplifies it through the middle ear
malleus (hammer) first of three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
incus (anvil) middle of three ossicles of the middle ear
stapes (stirrup) last of three ossicles of the middle ear
eustachian tube tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx (throat)
auditory tube tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx (throat)
internal ear intricate, fluid-filled, intercommunicating bony and membranous passages that function in hearing by relaying sound waves to auditory nerve fibers on a path to the brain for interpretation; also sense body movement and position to maintain balance
oval window membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and internal ear
labyrinth intricate, fluid-filled, intercommunicating bony and membranous passages that function in hearing by relaying sound waves to auditory nerve fibers on a path to the brain for interpretation; also sense body movement and position to maintain balance
cochlea coiled tubular structure of the internal ear that contains the spiral organ of Corti; cochlear duct is the membranous tube within the cochlea
perilymph fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the internal ear
endolymph fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear
spiral organ structure located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
organ of Corti structure located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
vestibule middle part of the internal ear, in front of the semicircular canals and behind the cochlea, that contains the utricle and the saccule; functions to provide body balance and equilibrium
utricle the larger of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
saccule the smaller of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear
semicircular canals three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement
otalgia earache
otodynia earache
otorrhagia bleeding from the ear
otorrhea purulent drainage from the ear
tinnitus a ringing or buzzing in the ears; a jingling
vertigo a turning round; dizziness
otitis externa inflammation of the external acoustic meatus
cerumen impaction excessive buildup of wax in the ear that often reduces hearing acuity, especially in elderly persons
myringitits inflammation of the eardrum
tympanitis inflammation of the eardrum
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
aerotitis media inflammation of the middle ear from changes in the atmospheric pressure; often occurs with frequent air travel
eustachian obstruction blockage of the eustachian (auditory) tube, usually as a result of infection, as in otitis media
otosclerosis hardening of the bony tissue in the ear
Acoustic Neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) a benign but life-threatening tumor of the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve (Cranial Nerve VIII) ; causes vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss
labyrinthitis inflammation of the labyrinth (internal ear), usually accompanied by vertigo and deafness
Meniere's disease disorder of the internal ear resulting from excessive buildup of endolymph, causing episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and hearing loss; one or both ears can be affected, and attacks vary in both frequency and intensity
deafness general term for partial or complete loss of hearing
conductive hearing loss hearing impairment caused by interference with sound or vibratory energy in the external canal, middle ear, or ossicles
sensorineaural hearing loss hearing impairment caused by lesions of dysfunction of the cochlea or cochlear (auditory) nerve
mixed hearing loss combination of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss
presbyaacusis hearing impairment in old age
presbycusis hearing impairment in old age
audiometry process of measuring hearing
audiometer instrument to measure hearing
audiogram record of hearing measurement
audiologist hearing professional who specializes in the study of hearing impairments
auditory acuity testing physical assessment of hearing; useful in differentiating between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss
tuning fork a two-pronged, fork-like instrument that vibrates when struck; used to test hearing, especially bone conduction; (eg. Webber test & Rinne test
brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) electrodiagnostic testing that uses computerized equipment to measure involuntary responses to sound within the auditory nervous system; commonly used to assess hearing in newborns
brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) electrodiagnostic testing that uses computerized equipment to measure involuntary responses to sound within the auditory nervous system; commonly used to assess hearing in newborns
otoscope instrument for examining the ear
otoscopy use of an otoscope to examine the external acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane
pneumatic otoscopy otoscopic observation of the tympanic membrane as air is released into the external auditory meatus; immobility indicates the presence of middle ear effusion (fluid buildup), as occurs as a result of otitis media
tympanometry measurement of the compliance and mobility (conductibility) of the tympanic membrane and ossicles of the middle ear by monitoring the response to external airflow pressures
microsurgery surgery with the use of a microscope used on delicate tissue, such as the ear
myringotomy incision into the eardrum, most often for the insertion of a small polyethylene (PE) tube to keep the canal open and prevent fluid buildup, such as occurs in otitis media; also called tympanotomy
otoplasy surgical repair of the external ear
stapedectomy excision of the stapes to correct otosclerosis
tympanoplasty surgical procedure to reconstruct the tympanic membrane and/or the auditory ossicles
auditory prosthesis any internal or external device that improves or substitutes for natural hearing
hearing aid an external amplifying device designed to improve hearing by more effective collection of sound into the ear
cochlear implant an electronic implanted in the cochlea that provides sound perception to patients with severe or profound sensorineural (nerve) hearing loss in both ears
ear lavage irrigation of the external ear canal, often to remove excessive buildup of cerumen
ear installation introduction of a medicated solution into the external canal, usually administered by drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected ears
antibiotic a drug that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms; used to treat diseases caused by bacteria (e.g., otitis media)
antihistamine a drug that blocks the effects of histamine
histamine a regulatory body substance released in allergic reactions, causing swelling and inflammation of tissue; seen in hay fever and urticaria (hives)
anti-inflammatory a drug that reduces inflammation
decongestant a drug that reduces congestion and swelling of membranes, such as those of the nose and auditory tube in an infection
BAEP brainstem auditory evoked potential
BAER brainstem auditory evoked response
ENT ear, nose, throat
PE polyethylene
TM tympanic membrane
Created by: alexandramila
 

 



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