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BIEN Final

Components of a digital grid dots, picture elements (pixels)
Component of each pixel color/tone of pixel
Bits in a byte 8
Formula for file size (Dimensions of picture*bits per pixel)/8 bits per byte
Spatial Resolution Ability to depict small details
Contrast Difference in grey level value between anatomy of interest and background
Noise Variance in grey level value
What does noise make it hard to do? depict small structures
Examples of image artifacts distortion, streaks
Phantoms Measure image quality
Anthropomorphic phantoms that model realistic anatomy
Pinhole camera One of simplest imaging systems
Why are objects blurred in real pinhole camera systems finite sized diameter
A distance between object and pinhole
B distance between pinhole and image
D diameter
Connection between diameter and blurring direct relationship as diameter increases blurring increases
Blurring formula (D*(a+b))/a
Magnification factor b/a
Why does distortion occur? The rays at the edge of the object are too steep to fit through the pinhole
What we need to make image waves/material that can penetrate and exit body, and interact with different tissues, safe, fast
Electromagnetic Wave spectrum cosmic,gamma,x-rays,Ultraviolet,Infrared,Microwaves,TV,MRI,Radio,Electric Power
Ionizing radiation modalities X-ray, CT, Nuclear Medicine/PET
Non-ionizing radiation Ultrasound, MRI
Ionizing Radiation created ions can damage RNA
How are the ions created? Photons dislodging electrons
X-ray Radiography Beam of x-rays travel through body, attenuation depends on density, resulting image is projection (shadow) of body
Only imaging modality that doesn’t use electromagnetic radiation Ultrasound
Which type of radiation is safer non-ionizing
Attenuation of x-ray depends on tissue depth, density, atomic number
Clinical applications of x-rays mammography, broken bones, GI tract, angiography( blood vessel injected with iodine)
Pros of x-rays High spatial resolution(.1mm), cheap, fast(real time)
Cons of x-rays ionizing radiation, 2D projection (shadow) imaging
2D projection 3D projection to 2D image, ex is the fork in the patient or on it
Tomosynthesis Series of X-rays acquired over limited projection of angles, provides slices
Pros of tomosynthesis relatively fast, cheaper than CT, partial 3D info, high spatial resolution (.5mm)
Cons of tomosynthesis more ionizing radiation than x-ray, more expensive than x-ray, partial 3d info
Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruct tomographic(cross sectional) images by acquiring x-ray projections at multiple view angles
Clinical applications of CT looking at heart and arteries
Pros of CT Fast, 3D, high spatial resolution (5mm)
Cons of CT lots of ionizing radiation, only measures x-ray attenuation(density) ex)iodine and calcium may look same
Nuclear Medicine/Positron emission tomography (PET) radioactive tracers injected into body and travel to specific organs and emit radiation
Type of radiation emitted in nuclear medicine imaging gamma rays
Nuclear medicine provides these images rather than anatomical ones functional
What Nuclear medicine/PET images are fused with this to provide functional and anatomical images CT
Clinical applications of Nuclear Medicine/ PET Oncology, looking at heart (coronary artery)
Pros of Nuclear Medicine/ PET functional imaging, limitless applications
Chest CT has 200 times the radiation of A chest X-ray
Radiation from 2 chest x-rays equal to 2 round-trip flights from NY to LA
Risk induced fatal cancer fr 2 chest x-rays equal to 1 in million, 6 min in canoe
Ultrasound is produced by sending high frequency signals
Sound waves are not electromagnetic but acoustic
transducer transmits and receives sound waves
The longer it takes to hear an echo the farther away the tissue is
Clinical applications of ultrasound scan abdomen, obstetrics, breast imaging, liver imaging, cardiovascular imaging
How ultrasound makes a 3D image moving transducer around
Pros of Ultrasound safe, 3D, inexpensive, realtime
Cons of Ultrasound limited spatial resolution, need acoustic window (can't see through bone or air)
MRI most recently developed, hydrogen protons are small magnets that cause the magnetic field to precess
Presence of field effect on magnetization in absence no net,in presence net
What protons do when placed in external magnetic field precess about field at Lamour frequency
Clinical applications of MRI brain imaging, knee and skeletal imaging, spine injuries, FMRI (Functional MRI sees what part of brain in doing most activity)
Pros of MRI great soft tissue contrast, nonionizing radiation, limitless contrast possibilities
Cons of MRI Slow, can't image people with magnetic material, claustrophobic, loud, expensive
How many shades can human eye perceive 30 shades of grey
What do you need to see an image a window
window width range of CT numbers displayed
window level center of CT numbers
Filter that increases blurring but reduces noise low pass
high pass filter that emphasizes edge of image
Traditional view that radiologists used 2D axial (slices)
Total number of slices in 1980 25-35
Total number of slices in 2005 600-4000
New visualization methods advanced 3D visualization, guided navigation, quantitative analysis, computer aided detection
z project 2D image that displays at each pixel the brightest grey level from all the reconstructed slides
How 3D info is displayed on 2D image using 3D volume rendering
Help radiologists find suspicious regions inn mamography and chest x rays computer aided detection
Medical imaging is broken down into Clinical need, acquiring data, reconstructing image, image processing, image display, clinical evaluation
Dr. Goldberg Used imaging as design and planning tool, surgical planning and custom implants, can "rehearse" outside of patient
Dr. Ladisa fluid dynamics, angiography, CT, MRI, Ultrasound, investigated cardiovascular disease, made valves as physiological as possible
Ryan McKindles Neuromechanics,diffusion tensor imaging
Diffusion tensor imaging Ryan McKindles, used to determine spinal injury location, aid in prognosis and monitor drug treatments
Relationship between bit depth and color the greater the bit depth the more color in the image
Christian o Connor WIFY, know importance of evaluating your skills, be open to opportunities and utilize them, embrace winded and varied career path
Obtained from converting customer needs into quantitative measurable design specifications Target specifications
Things you need to know when solving BME challenge problem customer needs, target specifications,
Concept generation brainstorming and comparing ideas
phantom construction final drawing, bill and test plan for validation
validation Used imageJ, evaluate based on target specifications
4 sections of resume Personal contact info, education, experience, activities/interests
magnification (again) aperture to screen distance/ aperture to object distance
Diameter formula .047(f)^1/2 where f is optimal focal length
Field of View formula di/do=hi/ho where o is object, i is image, d distance, h height
Created by: 600042666