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|The study of general population trends.
|The measure of total population relative to land area. Assumes an even distribution of people over area.
|Arithmetic population density
|The number of people per unit area of land. Divide population by area of land.
|The description of the pattern and spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together (clustering) and where few people live (dispersed).
|Geographers use these to represent population distribution on thematic maps. Each dot represents a certain number of people.
|A huge, urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
|Natural Increase Rate
|The crude birth rate and crude death rate of a population are two statistics used to calculate natural increase rate.
|Crude birth rate (CBR)
|The number of live births per year per thousand people.
|Crude death rate (CDR)
|The number of deaths per year per thousand people.
|Contraceptive prevalence rate
|The percentage of women ages 15-49 who are currently using or whose partner is currently using at least one contraceptive method.
|Time required for a population to double in size.
|Total fertility rate (TFR)
|The average number of children born to women of childbearing age(between 15-49).
|Old-age dependency ratio
|The relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15-64.
|Child dependency ratio
|Number of people between ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
|The structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
|Graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population.
|A model suggesting that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development.
|Zero population growth
|A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
|Infant mortality rate (IMR)
|The probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 1 year.
|The average number of years a person is expected to live;.
|Holds that as a country moves from high population growth rates to stable population growth rates, the causes of death and the age at which people are afflicted by disease change.
|Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases infuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
|Generally long lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
|Genetic or inherited diseases
|Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
|Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes.
|Expansive population policies
|Encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase.
|Eugenic population policies
|Designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children.
|Restrictive population policies
|Designed to reduce a population’s natural increase rate.