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Chapter 2

Demography The study of general population trends.
Population Density The measure of total population relative to land area. Assumes an even distribution of people over area.
Arithmetic population density The number of people per unit area of land. Divide population by area of land.
Population distribution The description of the pattern and spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together (clustering) and where few people live (dispersed).
Dot Maps Geographers use these to represent population distribution on thematic maps. Each dot represents a certain number of people.
Megalopolis A huge, urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
Natural Increase Rate The crude birth rate and crude death rate of a population are two statistics used to calculate natural increase rate.
Crude birth rate (CBR) The number of live births per year per thousand people.
Crude death rate (CDR) The number of deaths per year per thousand people.
Contraceptive prevalence rate The percentage of women ages 15-49 who are currently using or whose partner is currently using at least one contraceptive method.
Doubling time Time required for a population to double in size.
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children born to women of childbearing age(between 15-49).
Old-age dependency ratio The relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15-64.
Child dependency ratio Number of people between ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
Population composition The structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population pyramids Graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population.
Demographic transition A model suggesting that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development.
Zero population growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 1 year.
Life expectancy The average number of years a person is expected to live;.
Epidemiological transition Holds that as a country moves from high population growth rates to stable population growth rates, the causes of death and the age at which people are afflicted by disease change.
Infectious diseases Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases infuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
Degenerative diseases Generally long lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
Genetic or inherited diseases Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
Malaria Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes.
Expansive population policies Encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase.
Eugenic population policies Designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children.
Restrictive population policies Designed to reduce a population’s natural increase rate.
Created by: pl250331
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