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Chapter 2

Human Geography

Demography the study of general population trends.
Population Density measure of total population relative to land area.
Arithmetic Population Density Number of people per unit area of land. To calculate: Divide the population of an area by the amount of land (in sq miles or sq km).
Population Distribution the description of the pattern in the spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together (clustering) and where few people live (dispersed)..
Dot Maps Thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon. For example, a map where one dot represents 100,000 people.
Megalopolis An urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
Natural increase rate Difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceed deaths and negative if deaths exceed births. Does not include emigration and immigration.
Crude birth rate (CBR) the number of live births per year per thousand people.
Crude death rate (CDR) the number of deaths per year per thousand people.
Contraceptive prevalence rate the percentage of women ages 15 to 49 who are currently using or whose partner is currently using at least one contraceptive method.
Doubling time Time required for a population to double in size.
Total fertility rate (TFR) the average number of children born to women of childbearing age (between 15 and 49).
Old-age dependency ratio the relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15 and 64.
Child dependency ratio Number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
Population composition the structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population pyramids graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population
Demographic Transition a model suggesting that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development
Zero population growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) the probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 1 year.
Life expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live
Epidemiology transition holds that as a country moves from high population growth rates to stable population growth rates, the causes of death and the age at which people are afflicted by disease change.
Infectious diseases Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
Degenerative diseases Diseases that come with old age.
Genetic or Inherited Diseases Diseases that trace back to our genetic makeup
Malaria Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes.
Expansive population policies encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase.
Eugenic population policies designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children.
Restrictive population policies designed to reduce a population’s natural increase rate.
Created by: kayla.giset
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