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Chapter 2

AP Human Geo

Demography the study of general population trends
Population density number of people per unit area of land
Arithmetic population density number of people per unit area of land; very general
Population distribution description of spatial distribution of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together and where few people live
Dot maps thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon
megalopolis an urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north
Natural increase rate difference between number of births and deaths in a year
Crude birth rate (CBR) number of live births per 1,000 people among a population in an area in a year
Crude death rate (CDR) number of deaths per 1,000 people among a population in a n area in a year
Contraceptive prevalence rate percent of woman who are currently using or have a sexual partner who is using a method of contraception
Doubling time time required for a population to double in size
Total fertility rate (TFR) the average number of children born to a woman of child-bearing age
Old-age dependency ratio number of people 65 years of age or older for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64
Child dependency ratio number of people between the ages 0-14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64
Population composition structure of population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education
Population pyramids a graphic representation of the age and sex composition of a population
Demographic transition observation that a country's birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development; the model is based on population change in western Europe.
Zero population growth a state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births
Infant mortality rate (IMR) probability per 1,000 live births that a child will die before reaching age 1 year
Life expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live
Epidemiological transition change in the pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies
Infectious diseases diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites; diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human
Degenerative diseases generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies
Genetic or inherited diseases diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans
Malaria vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes
Expansive population policies government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Eugenic population policies government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people
Restrictive population policies government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural population increase (also called antinatalist)
Created by: rithvikm7
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