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Chapter 2

Human Geography

Demography Study of general population trends.
Population density Number of people per unit area of land.
Arithmetic population density Number of people per unit area of land. To calculate: Divide the population of an area by the amount of land (in sq miles or sq km).
Population distribution Description of spatial distribution of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together and where few people live.
Dot maps Thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon. For example, a map where one dot represents 100,000 people.
Megapolis An urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
Natural increase rate Difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceed deaths and negative if deaths exceed births. Does not include emigration and immigration.
Crude birth rate (CBR) Number of live births per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year.
Crude death rate (CDR) Number of deaths per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year.
Contraceptive prevalence rate Percent of women who are currently using or have a sexual partner who is using a method of contraception.
Doubling time Time required for a population to double in size.
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children born to a woman of child-bearing age.
Old-age dependency ratio Number of people 65 years of age or older for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
Population composition Structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population pyramids A graphic representation of the age and sex composition of a population.
Demographic transition Observation that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development. Model is based on population change in western Europe.
Zero population growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) Probability per 1000 live births that a child will die before reaching age 1 year.
Life expectancy Average number a years a person is expected to live
Epidemiological transition Change in the pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies.
Infectious diseases Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
Degenerative diseases Generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
Genetic or inherited diseases Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
Malaria Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes.
Expansive population policies Government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Eugenic population policies Government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people.
Restrictive population policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural population increase (also called antinatalist).
Created by: tguzman


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