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Chapter Two Vocab
|The study of general population trends.
|Number of people per unit area of land; the measure of total population relative to land area; assumes an even distribution of people over an area.
|arithmetic population density
|Number of people per unit area of land. To calculate: Divide the population of an area by the amount of land (in sq miles or sq km).
|Description of spatial distribution of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together (clustering) and where few people live (dispersed).
|Thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of phenomenon. For example, a map where one dot represents 100,000 people.
|An urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
|natural increase rate
|Difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceed deaths and negative if deaths exceed births. Does not include emigration and immigration; calculated with the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.
|crude birth rate (CBR)
|Number of live births per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year.
|crude death rate (CDR)
|Number of deaths per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year.
|contraceptive prevalence rate
|Percentage of women ages 15 to 49 who are currently using or have a sexual partner who is using at least one method of contraception.
|Time required for a population to double in size.
|total fertility rate (TFR)
|The average number of children born to a woman of child-bearing age.
|old-age dependency ratio
|Number of people 65 years of age or older for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
|child dependency ratio
|Number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
|Structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as martial status and education.
|A graphic representation of the age and sex composition of a population.
|Observation that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development. Model is based on population change in western Europe, specifically after the Industrial Revolution.
|zero population growth
|A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
|infant mortality rate (IMR)
|Probability per 1000 live births that a child will die before reaching age 1 year.
|The average number of years a person is expected to live.
|Change in pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies.
|Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites; diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
|Chronic; generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
|genetic or inherited diseases
|Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
|Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes.
|expansive population policies
|Government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
|eugenic population policies
|Government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people; designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children.
|restrictive population policies
|Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural population increase (also called antinatalist).