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Chapter 2

Demography Study of general population trends.
Population density Measure of total population relative to land area.
Arithmetic population density Number of people per unit area of land. To calculate: divide the population of an area by the amount of land.
Population distribution Description of the pattern in the spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers numbers of people live closely together and where few people live.
Dot maps Thematic maps where each dot representing a certain number of people.
Megapolis huge urban agglomeration.
Natural increase rate difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceeds deaf and negative if deaths exceed births. Does not include emigration and immigration.
Crude birth rate (CBR) number of live births per year per thousand people.
Crude death rate (CDR) number of deaths per year per thousand years.
Contraceptive prevalence rate percentage of women ages 15 to 49 who are currently using or whose partner is currently using at least one contraceptive method.
Doubling time time required for a population to double in size.
Total fertility rate (TFR) average number of chidden born to women of childbearing age (between 15 and 49)
Old-age dependence ratio relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15-64.
Child dependency ratio number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
Population composition structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population pyramids graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population.
Demographic transition model suggesting that a country's birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development.
Zero population growth state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of death is exactly offset by the number of births.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 1 year.
Life expectancy average number of years a person is expected to live.
Epidemiological transition change in the pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies.
Infectious diseases diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human,
Degenerative diseases generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
Genetic or inherited diseases diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
Malaria vectored disease spread by
Expansive population policies government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Eugenic population policies government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people.
Restrictive population policies government policies designed to reduce the rate pf natural population increase (also called antinatalist).
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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