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Chapter 2

Demography The study of general population trends
Population Density The ratio of total population to land area
Arithmetic Population Density The average population density (Sometimes meaningless in areas/countries with lots of inhabitable areas
Population Distribution the description of the pattern in the spatial arrangement of people (including where large numbers of people live closely together and where few people live)
Dot maps A thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon. like a map where one dot = 100,000 people
megalopolis a huge urban agglomeration stretching from Washington DC in the south to Boston Massachusetts in the north.
natural increase rate what results when you subtract crude death rates from crude birth rates and do not include immigration or emigration
crude birth rate the number of live births per year per thousand people
crude death rate the number of deaths per year per thousand people
contraceptive prevalence rate the percentage of women ages 15-49 who are currently using or have a partner who is using at least one contraceptive method
doubling time time required for a population to double in size
total fertility rate is the average number of children born to women of childbearing age (between 15 and 49)
old age dependency ratio Number of people 65 years of age or older for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
child dependency ratio Number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
population composition the structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
population pyramids graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population
demographic transition a model suggesting that a country’s birth and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development (based on population change in western europe after the industrial revolution)
zero population growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
infant mortality rate the probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 5. given as the number of cases per 1000 years.
life expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live
epidemiological transition as a country moves from high population growth rates to stable population growth rates, the causes of death and the age at which people are afflicted by disease change
infectious diseases diseases that result from an invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body
degenerative deseases generally long lasting afflictions now more common because of longer life expectancies
genetic/inherited diseases diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans
malaria vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes
expansive population policies government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
eugenic population policies government policies designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children
restrictive population policies government policies designed to reduce a population's natural increase rate
Created by: SchoolEnjoyer96
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