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APHG Chapter 2

Demography The study of general population trends.
Population density A measure of total population relative to land area.
Arithmetic Population Density Number of people per unit area of land.
Population Distribution The description of the pattern in the spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together and where few people live.
Dot Maps Thematic maps where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon.
Megalopolis A huge urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north.
Natural increase rate Difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceed deaths, negative if deaths exceed births.
Crude birth rate (CBR) The number of live births per year per thousand people.
Crude death rate (CDR) Number of deaths per 1000 people among a population in an area in year.
Contraceptive prevalence rate The percentage of women ages 15 to 49 who are currently using at least one contraceptive method.
Doubling time Time required for a population to double in size.
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children born to women of childbearing age (between 15 and 49).
Old-age dependency ratio The relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15 and 64.
Child dependency ratio Number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population).
Population composition The structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population pyramids Graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population.
Demographic transition A model suggesting that a country's birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development.
Zero population growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The probability that an infant will die before reaching the age of 1 year.
Life expectancy The average number of years a person is expected to live.
Epidemiological transition Change of the pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies.
Infectious diseases Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. They diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human.
Degenerative diseases Generally long-lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies.
Genetic or inherited diseases Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans.
Malaria Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitos.
Expansive population policies Government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Eugenic population policies Government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people.
Restrictive population policies Government policies are designed to reduce a population's natural increase rate.
Created by: Pl251291
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