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AP Humen Geo. Ch.2

Demography The study of general population trends
Population Density Number of people per unit area of land
Arithmetic Population Density Number of people per unit area of land. To calculate: Divide the population of an area by the amount of land (in sq miles or sq km)
Population Distribution Description of spatial distribution of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together and where few people live
Dot Maps Thematic map where individual symbols represent a certain number of cases of a phenomenon. For example, a map where one dot represents 100,000 people
Megalopolis An urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north
Natural Increase Rate Difference between number of births and deaths in a year. Positive if births exceed deaths and negative if deaths exceed births. Does not include emigration and immigration
Crude Birth Rate Number of live births per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year
Crude Death Rate Number of deaths per 1000 people among a population in an area in a year
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Percent of women who are currently using or have a sexual partner who is using a method of contraception
Doubling Time Time required for a population to double in size
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children born to a woman of child-bearing age
Old-Age Dependency Ratio Number of people 65 years of age or older for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population)
Child Dependency Ratio Number of people between the ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population)
Population Composition Structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education
Population Pyramids A graphic representation of the age and sex composition of a population
Demographic Transition Observation that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development. Model is based on population change in western Europe
Zero Population Growth A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births
Infant Mortality Rate Probability per 1000 live births that a child will die before reaching age 1 year
Life Expectancy The average number of years a person is expected to live
Epidemiological Transition Change in the pattern of mortality in a society from high mortality among infants (including malnutrition and diarrheal disease) and periods of widespread famine to high mortality from degenerative diseases which coincide with longer life expectancies
Infectious Diseases Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases diffuse directly or indirectly from human to human
Degenerative Diseases Diseases that are primarily afflictions of middle and old age
Genetic or Inherited Diseases Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans
Malaria Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes
Expansive Population Policies Government policies designed to encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Eugenic Population Policies Government policies designed to limit population growth among a certain group of people
Restrictive Population Policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural population increase (also called antinatalist)
Created by: Pl251741
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