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unit 2 - population

ap human geography

agricultural density the ratio to the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural revolution the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
arithmetic (population) density the total number of people divided by the total land area
baby boom a cohort of individuals born in the U.S between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and jobs , encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
baby bust period of time during the 1960s & 70s when fertility rates in the U.S dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more harder jobs, causing them to marry later in life. So, the fertility rate drop
carrying capacity largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
census an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals.
crude birth rate (CBR) total number of live births per every 1000 people
crude death rate (CDR) total number of deaths per every 1000 people
demographic transition the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and crude death and low rate of natural increase and a higher total pop.
demography the scientific study of population characteristics.
dependancy ratio the number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
doubling time the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
ecumene the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
epidemiology branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
exponential growth growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.
industrial revolution a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate (IMR) the percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
medical revolution medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poor countries and enabled more peop
natural increase rate (NIR) the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
neo-malthusian advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.
physiological density the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
population pyramid a model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
sex ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR) the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
j-curve a growth curve that depicts exponential growth
Thomas Malthus eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
contraceptives a device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy
green revolution rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
pronatalist policies government policies that encourage child birth such as tax breaks and flexible work hours
antinatalist policies seek to reduce birth rates and strongly encourage or require that women limit their fertility
demographic momentum this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Ester Boserup the Danish economist (1910-1999) who argued that rising populations will stimulate human societies to produce more food through innovation and technology.
Created by: ryleestelly
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