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Unit 02 Vocabulary

Topics 2.1-2.12

Column 1Column 2
Demographic Transition Model a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
epidemiology a branch of medicine that deals with incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
Epidemiological Transition Model a shift in the disease pattern of a population as mortality fell during the first stages of the demographic transition. Acute infectious diseases were reduced, whereas chronic, degenerative diseases increased. It also meant a gradual upward shirt in the age distribution of deaths.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) the number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR) the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
demography Scientific study of human populations
dependency ratio the number of people under age 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
ecumene the portion of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
infant mortality rate (IMR) the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
life expectancy a figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
Maternal Mortality Rate Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth
epidemic a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
pandemic disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
zero population growth A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Malthusian Theory focuses on how the exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder
Neo-Malthusian Theory Revisions of Malthusian theory about food production and population growth that include more information, such as taking into account the effects of technology.
Boserup Theory Population growth stimulates intensification in agricultural development- opposite of Malthus theory.
immigration policy government rules governing how individuals can enter a country and how long they are allowed to stay
pronatalist a government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception
antinatalist Policies that discourage people from having children (China's One Child Policy)
contraception Intentionally preventing pregnancy from occurring
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration A set of 11 "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.
xenophobia a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
population distribution a description of how individuals are distributed with respect to one another
population density a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
arithmetic densiy the total number of people divided by the total land area
arable land land suited for agriculture
physiological density the number of people per unit of area of arable land
agricultural density the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
carrying capacity largest number of individuals of a population that an environment can support
sex ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population
age cohort people born at roughly the same time who pass through the course of life together
population pyramid a model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular area
Baby Boom a cohort of individuals born in the USA between 1946 and 1964 which was a time of relative peace and prosperity following WW2
mortality the state of being subject to death
fertility the production of offspring within a population
doubling time the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase
natural increase the growth rate of a population; the difference between birthrate and death rate
demography the scientific study of population characteristics
demographics statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Push Factors Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.
pull factors Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas
intervening opportunities The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
intervening obstacles An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
forced migration Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
voluntary migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
refugees People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
internally displaced person People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee.
asylum seeker Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee
transnational migration regular movement of a person between two or more countries resulting in a new cultural identity
internal migration Permanent movement within a particular country.
chain migration migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circular migration The temporary movement of a migrant worker between home and host countries to seek employment.
migration transition Migration trends follow demographic transition stages. People become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. More international migration is seen in stage 2 as migrants search for more space and opportunities in countries in stages 3 and 4. Stage-4 countries show less emigration and more intraregional migration
net migration The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
step migration Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
guest worker a foreign laborer living and working temporarily in another country
intraregional migration Permanent movement within one region of a country.
interregional migration movement from one region of a country to another
international migration Permanent movement from one country to another.
emigration movement of individuals out of an area
environmental degradation damage to or destruction of the natural environment
brain drain the loss of highly educated and skilled workers to other countries
remittances Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
Created by: karaangelos
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