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Unit 2.5-2.9 Words

Words from learning objective 2.5-2.9

Demographic Transition Model a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
epidemiology a branch of medicine that deals with incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
Epidemiological Transition Model a shift in the disease pattern of a population as mortality fell during the first stages of the demographic transition. Acute infectious diseases were reduced, whereas chronic, degenerative diseases increased. It also meant a gradual upward shirt in the age distribution of deaths.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) the number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR) the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
demography Scientific study of human populations
dependency ratio the number of people under age 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
ecumene the portion of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
infant mortality rate (IMR) the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
life expectancy a figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
Maternal Mortality Rate Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth
epidemic a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
pandemic disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
zero population growth A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Malthusian Theory focuses on how the exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder
Neo-Malthusian Theory Revisions of Malthusian theory about food production and population growth that include more information, such as taking into account the effects of technology.
Boserup Theory Population growth stimulates intensification in agricultural development- opposite of Malthus theory.
immigration policy government rules governing how individuals can enter a country and how long they are allowed to stay
pronatalist a government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception
antinatalist Policies that discourage people from having children (China's One Child Policy)
contraception Intentionally preventing pregnancy from occurring
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration A set of 11 "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.
xenophobia a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers