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CSA Chapter 2

Integumentary System

What is the integumentary system composed of? Skin, Hair, Nails, Sweat glands, Sebaceous (oil) glands
What are the 4 functions of the integumentary system? Protect the body from injury, Protect the body from intrusion of microorganisms, Helps regulate body temperature, houses receptors for sense of touch
What are the 3 layers of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
What does the epidermis consist of? Strata (layers): Stratum, Stratum corneum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum spinosum, Stratum basale
Stratum Basale Site of cell production (innermost layer)
Stratum Corneum Layers of dead cells sloughed off (outermost layer)
What does the dermis contain? Blood vessels, nerves, nerve ending, glands, and hair follicles
adip/o fat
corne/o horn, hard
cutane/o skin
derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
erythr/o red
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
kerat/o hard
leuk/o white
lip/o fat
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
onych/o nail
plas/o formation
purpur/o purple
scler/o hard
seb/o sebum (oil)
squam/o scale
steat/o fat
trich/o hair
xanth/o yellow
xer/o dry
epithelium cellular avascular layer covering external and internal surfaces of the body
epidermis outer layer of the skin
stratum corneum the outer layer of the epidermis, made up of several layers of flat keratinized (hard, proteinaceous) cells
stratum basale deepest layer of the epidermis, also called the basal layer
melanocyte cell in the stratum basale that gives color to the skin
melanin dark brown to black pigmient contained in melanocytes
dermis dense, fiborous connective tissue layer of the skin, also known as corium
sebaceous glands oil glands in the skin
sebum oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glans sweat glands (sudor=sweat; ferre=to bear)
subcutaneous layer connective and adipose tissue layer just deep to (under) the dermis
collagen protein substance in skin and connective tissue (koila=glue; gen=producing)
hair outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin
nail outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin at the end og each finger and toe
keratin hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
lesion an area of pathologicallu altered tissue; types of lesion are primary, secondary, vascular, and purpuric
primary lesions lesions arising from previously normal skin
macule a flat, discolored spot on the skin up to 1 cm across (freckle)
macula a flat, discolored spot on the skin up to 1 cm across (freckle)
patch a flat, discolored area on the skin larger than 1 cm (vitiligo)
papule a solid mass on the skin up to 0.5 cm in diameter (a mole)
plaque a solid mass greater than 1 cm in diameter and limited to the surface of the skin
nodule a solid mass greater that 1 cm that extends deeper than the epidermis
tumor a solid mass larger than 1-2 cm
wheal an area of localized skin edema (swelling) (a hive)
vesicle little bladder; an elevated, fluid filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm in diameter (a fever blister)
bulla a blister larger that 0.5 cm (a second-degree burn)
pustule a pus-filled sac (pimple)
secondary lesions lesions that result in changes to primary lesions
erosion gnawed away; loss of superficial epidermis, leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding (area of moisture after rupture of a vesicle)
ulcer an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar; sometimes accompanied by infection (decubitus ulcer)
excoriation a scratch mark
fissure a linear crack in the skin
scale a thin flake of exfoliated epidermis (dandruff)
crust a dried residue of serum (body liquid), pus, or blood on the skin (as seen in impetigo)
vascular lesions lesion of blood vessels
cherry angioma a small, round, bright red blood vessel tumor on the skin, seen mostly in people over the age of 40
telangiectasia a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly on the face, neck, or chest (telos=end); also called spider angioma
spider angioma a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly on the face, neck, or chest (telos=end); also called telangiectasia
purpuric lesions purprura; lesions resulting from hemorrhages into the skin
petechia spot; reddish-brown, minute hemorrhagic spots on the skin that indicate a bleeding tendency; a small purpura
ecchymosis bruise; a black and blue mark; a large purpura (chymo=juice)
cicatrix of the skin a mark left by the healing of a sore or wound, showing the replacement of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue (cictrix=scar)
keloid an abnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that is thick and irregular (kele=tumor)
neoplasm abnormal tissue growth by more rapis than normal cellular proliferation
nevus a benign localized overgrowth of melanin-forming cells on the skin present at birth or appearing early in life that can be epidermal or vascular; also called a mole
dysplastic nevus a mole with precancerous changes
verruca an epidermal growth caused by a papilloma virus, also called a wart
acne Inflammation in the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin, evidenced by comedones, pustules or nodules on the skin
albinism A hereditary condition characterize by partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the skin, hair, and eyes)
burn injury to body tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or gases
first degree burn a burn involving only the epidermis; characterized by erythema (redness) and hyperesthesia (excessive sensation) also called superficial burn
second degree burn a burn involving the epidermis and the dermis; characterized by erythema, hypersthesisa, and vesications (blisters); also called partial-thickness burn
third degree burn a burn that involves destruction of entire skin: epidermis, dermis, and extends into the subcutaneous layer
dermatitis inflammation of the skin characterized by eryhtema, pruritus (itching), and various lesions
dermatosis any disorder of the skin
exanthematous viral disease an eruption of the skin caused by a viral disease (exanthema=eruption)
Rubella an acute but mild disease caused by rubella virus, also called German Measles
Rubeola a term used for measles
Varicella an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus (chicken pox)
eczema generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin characterized by inflamed papules and vesicles that crust and scale, often with sensations of itching and burning
Furuncle boil; a painful nodule formed in the skin by inflammation originating in a hair follicle; caused by staphylococcosis
Carbuncle skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria
Abscess a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by inflamed surrounding tissues, which heals when drained
gangrene death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) an infection caused by herpes virus marked by eruption of vesicles around the mouth and nose
herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) sexually transmitted, ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may reoccur at times of stress
herpes zoster viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles (zoster=girdle)
impetigo a highly contagious bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture, most often around the mouth and nose
keratosis thickened areas of the epidermis
actinic keratosis a localized thickening of skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight, a known precursor to cancer (actinic=ray; solar=sun); also called solar keratosis
seborrheic keratosis superficial, benign, pigmented wart-like lesions; more common after the 3rd decade
lupus any of various chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the skin and other tissues (lupus=wolf)
cutaneous lupus erythematosus various skin lesions evidenced by a characteristic rash, especially on the face, neck, and scalp
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a more severe form of lupus involving the skin, joints, and often vital organs (lungs or kidneys)
malignant cutaneous neoplasm skin cancer
squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) malignant neoplasm of the stratifies squamous epithelium
basal cell carcinoma malignant neoplasm of the stratum basale of the epidermis; the most common type of skin cancer
melanoma malignant neoplasm composed of melanocytes
Kaposi sarcoma malignant tumor of the walls of blood vessels, appearing as painless, darl bluish-purple plaques on the skin; often spreads to the lymph nodes and internal organs; commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS
onychia inflammation of the fingernail or toenail
paronychia inflammation of the nail fold
pediculosos infestation with lice that causes itching and dermatitis (pediculo=louse)
pediculosis capitis presence of lice on the scalp, seen especially in children, with nits attached to hairs (capitis=head)
pediculosis pubis infestation with the pubic or crab louse, especially in the pubic hair (pubis=groin)
psoriasis inherited skin disease marked by red, itchy, scaly patches
scabies a contagious skin disease marked by itching and small raised red spots, caused by the itch mite; intense pruritus between the fingers, genitalia, trunk and extremities is common (scabo=to scratch)
seborrhea a skin condition marked by the hypersecretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands
tinea a group of fungal skin diseases identified by the body part affected, including tinea corporis (body), commonly called ringworm, and tinea pedis (foot), also called athlete's foot
vitiligo a condition in which the pigment is lost due to melanin destruction, creating areas of white patches on the skin or hair
biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic pathologic examination
excisional biopsy removal of an entire lesion
incisional biopsy removal of a selected portion of a lesion
shave biopsy a technique using a surgical blade to "shave" tissue from the epidermis and upper dermis
culture and sensitivity (C&S) a technique of isolating growing colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine which drugs might be effective for combating the infection it caused
frozen section (FS) a surgical technique that involves cutting a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathologic examination
skin tests methods for determining the reaction of the body to a given substance by applying it to, or injecting it into, the skin; commonly used in treating allergies
scratch test a test in which a substance is applied to the skin through a scratch
patch test a test in which a substance is applied topically to the skin on a small piece of blotting paper or wet cloth
chemosurgery removal of tissue after it has been destroyed by chemical means
chemical peel a technique for restoring wrinkled, scarred, or blemished skin by applying an acid solution to "peel" away the top layers of skin
cryosurgery destruction of tissue by freezing with application of an extremely cold chemical (liquid nitrogen)
dermabrasion surgical removal of epidermis frozen by aerosol spray using wire brushes and emery papers to remove scars, tattoos, and/or wrinkles
debridement removal of dead tissue from a woumd or burn site to promote healing and to prevent infection
curettage cleaning; scraping of wound using a spoon-like cutting intsrument called a curette; used for debridement
electrosurgical procedures use of electric current to destroy tissue; the type and strength of the current and method of application vary
electrocautery use of an instrument heated by electric current (cautery) to coagulate bleeding areas by burning the tissue (to sear a blood vessel)
electrodesiccation use of high-frequency electric currents to destroy tissue by drying it; the active electrode makes direct contact with the skin lesion (dessicate=to dry up)
fulguration to lighten; use of long, high-frequency, electric sparks to destroy tissue; the active electrode does no touch skin
incision and drainage (I&D) incision and drainage of an infected skin lesion (an abscess)
laser an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an instrument that concentrates high frequencies into small, that is precise depth and diameter applied to body tissues to destroy lesions or for dissection
laser surgery surgery using a laser in carious dermatologic procedure to remove lesions, scars, and tattoos
Mohs surgery a technique used to excise tumors of the skin by removing fresh tissue, layer by layer, until a tumor-free plane is reached
skin grafting transfer of skin from one body site to another to replace skin that has been lost through a burn or injury
auto graft graft transfer to a new position in the body of the same person (auto=self)
heterograft or xenograft graft transfer between different species, such as from animal to human (hetero=different) (zeno=strange)
homograft or allograft graft transfer between persons of the same species, such as human to human (homo=same)
chemotherapy treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapy treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to deter the proliferation of malignant cells
sclerotherapy use of sclerosing agents in treating diseases (injection of a saline solution into a dilated blood vessel tumor in the skin, resulting in hardening of the tissue within and eventual sloughing away of the lesion)
ultraviolet therapy use of ultraviolet light to promote healing of a skin lesion (an ulcer)
anesthetic a drug that temporarily blocks transmission of nerve conducting to produce a loss of sensations (pain)
antibiotic a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
antifungal a drug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
antihistamine a drug that blocks the effects of histamine in the body
histamine a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues (in hives and hay fever)
anti-inflammatory a drug that reduces inflammation (swelling)
antipuritic a drug that relieves itching
antiseptic an agent that inhibits the growth of infectiousmicroorganisms
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
BCC basal cell carcinoma
Bx biopsy
C&S culture and sensitivity
FS frozen section
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HSV-1 herpes simplex virus type 1
HSV-2 herpes simplex virus type 2
I&D incision and drainage
Rx medical prescription
SCC squamous cell carcinoma
Sig label; instruction to the patient
SLE systematic lupus erythematosus
t.i.d three times a day
alopecia baldness; natural or unnatural deficiency of hair
comedo a plug of sebum (oil) within the opening of a hair follicle
comedones plural form of comedo
comedos plural form of comedo
closed comedo a comedo below the skin surface, with a white center (whitehead)
open comedo a comedo open to the skin surface, with a black center caused by the presence of melanin exposed to air (blackhead)
eruption appearance of a skin lesion
erythema redness of the skin
pruritus severe itching
rash a general term for skin eruption
skin pigmentation skin color resulting from the presence of melanin
depigmentation loss of melanin pigment in the skin
hypopigmentation areas of skin lacking in color because of deficient amounts of melanin
hyperpgimentation darkened areas of skin cause by excessive amounts of melanin
suppuration production or purulent matter (pus)
urticaria hives; an eruption of wheals on the skin accompanied by itching
xeroderma dry skin
Created by: alexandramila
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