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AP Human Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Vocabulary Terms from AP textbook

TermDefinition
Geography The study of the spaces and places people create on the ground and in their minds, and the ways in which people use and shape the environment.
Human Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of humen phenomena, including population, cultures, acitivites, and landscapes.
Globalization Processes heightening interactions, increasing interdependence, and deepening relations across country borders.
Fieldwork Observations researchers make of physical and cultural landscapes with a focus on seeing similarities and differences.
Patterns Description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon.
Physical Geography One of the two major divisions of geography: the spatial analysis of physical phenomena, including climate, environmental hazards, weather systems, animals, and topography.
Spatial distribution Physical locations of geographic phenomena, usually showing on a map.
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Epidemic Widespread, rapid diffusion of diease among a people in a particular location or region at a particualr time.
Spatial perspective Looking at where things occur, why tehy occur, where they do, and how places are interconnected.
Geographic concepts Metnal categories used to organize and analyze the word spatially.
Location Position on Earth, including both absolute location and relative location.
Absolute location Precise locatoin of a place, usually defined by latitude and longitude.
Location theory Understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with the goal of explaining why places are chosen as sites of production or consumption. The von Thunen model is an example.
Human-environment interactions Reciprocal relationship between humans and environment.
Environmental determinism Set of theories that use environmental differences to explain evertying from intelligence to wealth.
Hearth A rea or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates.
Possibilism Theory in geography that humans, not environment, shape culture.
Carrying capacity The idea that land can hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life.
Cultural Ecology Study of the historical interaction between humans and environment in a place, including ways humans have modified and adapted to enviroment.
Political Ecology An apprach to studying human-environment interactions in teh context of political, economic, and historical conditions operating at multiple scales.
Region Area of Earth identified as sharing a formal, functional, or perceptualo commonality that make it different from regions around it.
Formal Region Area of land with common cultural or physical traits.
Cultural traits A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture.
Functional Region A rea of land defined ashsaring a common purpose in society.
Nodes Connection point in a network, where goods and ideas flow in, out, and through the network.
Perceptual/Vernacular Region Area of land that an individual percieves as being similar.
Place Uniquness of a location.
Sence of Place Infusing a place with meaing as a result of experiences in a place.
Perception of Place How a place is invisioned.
Movement Mobility of people, goods, and services across Earth.
Diffusion Spread of an ideal innvoation, or technology from its hearth to other people and places.
Spatial Interaction Degree of connectedness or contact among people or places.
Distance an amount of space between two things or people.
Accessibility Ease of flow between two places.
Connectivity Position of place or area relative to others in a network.
Expansion Diffusion The spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving.
Contagious Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place ot another person or place based on proximity. Specific type of expansion diffusion.
Hierarchical Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness. Specific type of expansion diffusion.
Stimulus Diffusion A process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a disctinct trait.
Relocation Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them.
Cultural landscape A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture.
Sequent occupance Imprints left on the cultural landscape by a series of successive societies. Each society contributed to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Scale Geographical scope in which we analyze and understand a phenomenon.
Rescale Changing teh geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale.
Context The physical and human geographies creating the place, enviromnent, and space in which events occur and people act.
Cartography The art and sceince of making maps.
Reference maps Maps showing absolute location of places and geographic features.
Thematic maps A map that tells a story, typically showing the degree of some attibute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon using map symbols.
Global Positioning System (GPS) Satellite-based system for determining teh absolute location of places or geographic geatures.
Mental maps Maps of an area made from memory or experience by individuals or groups.
Activity spaces Places within the rounds of daily activity.
Terra Incognita Areas on maps that are not well defined because they are off limits or unkown to the map maker.
Remote sensing A mehtod of collecting data or infomration through the use of instruments that are physically distant from teh area of study.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) A system of computer hardware and software desinged to show, analyze, and represent geographic data.
Culture Group of belief systems, norms, and values practived by a people.
Culture Complex A group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress coeds and cooking and eating utensils.
Created by: pl232602
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