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Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Geography study of the spaces and place people create on the ground and in their minds, and the ways in which people use and shape the environment.
Human Geography how we organize ourselves ad our activities in space/how we are connected to one another and the environment
Globalization a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and accelerating conncectedness across country borders
Fieldwork observations researchers make of physical and cultural landscapes with a focus on seeing similarities and differences
Patterns description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon (scattered or concentrated)
Physical Geography study of the spatial and material characteristics of the physical environment
Spatial Distribution physical locations of geographical phenomena, usually shown on a map
Pandemic worldwide outbreaks of disease
Epidemic a regional outbreak of disease
Spatial Perspective looking at where things occur, why they occur where they do, and how places are interconnected
Geographic Concepts mental categories used to organize and analyze the world spatially
Location the geographical position of people and things on earth's surface
Absolute Location precise location of a place, usually defined by latitude and longitude
Relative Location location of a place or attribute relative to another place or attribute
Location Theory understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with the goal of explaining why places are chosen as sites of production or consumption
Human-environment Interactions reciprocal (mutually affecting each other) relationship between humans and the physical world
Environmental Determinism idea that individual and collective human behavior is fundamentally affected by, or controlled by, the physical environment
Hearth area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates
Possibilism theory in geography that humans, not environment, shape culture
Carrying Capacity idea that land can hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life
Culture Ecoloygy study of the historical interaction between humans and environment in a place, including ways humans have modified and adapted to environment
Region area of earth with a degree of similarity that differentiates ut from surrounding areas
Formal Region area of land with common cultural or physical traits
Cultural traits a learned belief, norm, or valued passed down through generations in a culture
Functional Region an area that shares a common purpose
Nodes places that functions as central connecting points for a functional region
Perceptual/Vernacular Region images people carry in their minds based on accumulated knowledge of peoples, places and things
Place uniqueness of a location
Sense of Place infusing a place with meaning as a result of experiences in a place
Perception of Place how a place we never been to is envisioned
Movement refers to the mobility of people, goods, and ideas
Diffusion spread of an idea, innovation, or technology from its hearth (origin) to other people and places
Spatial Interaction degree of connectedness or contact among people or places
Distance measured physical space
Accessibility ease of reaching one location from another
Connectivity degree of linkage between locations in a network
Expansion Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving
Contagious Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on proximity
Hierarchical Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness
Stimulus Diffusion process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait
Relocation Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them
Cultural landscape visible human imprint on the landscape
Sequent Occupance imprints left on the cultural landscape by a series of successive societies
Scale 1: distance on a map compared to the distance on earth 2: spatial extent of something (the scale of something)
Rescale changing the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decisions makers and gatekeepers at another scale
Context bigger picture in which a human or physical geography phenomenon takes place
Cartography art and science of making maps
Reference maps show locations of places and geographical features
Thematic maps a map that tells a story, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographical phenomenon using map symbols
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographical features
Mental maps maps of an area made from memory or experience by individuals or groups (cognitive maps)
Activity Spaces places within the rounds of daily activity
Terra Incognita unknown lands that are sometime off-limits
Remote Sensing method of collecting data or information through instruments that are physically distant from the area of study
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) system of computer hardware and software designed to show, analyze, and represent geographic data (data that has locations)
Culture group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people
Culture Complex group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils
Political Ecology approach to studying human-environment interactions in the context of political, economic, and historical coditions operating at multiple scales
Popular AP Human Geography sets

 

 



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