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Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Geography The spatial study of people,
Human Geography How people affect the earth
Globalization Process heightening interactions, increasing interdependence, and deepening relations across country boarders
Fieldwork Observations researches make of physical and cultural landscapes with a focus on seeing similarities and differences
Patterns Description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon
Physical Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of physical phenomena, including climate, environmental hazards, whether systems, animals, and topography
Spatial Distribution Physical locations of geographic phenomena, usually shown on a map
Pandemic Global disease
Epidemic Regional disease
Spatial Perspective Looking at where things occur, why they occur where they do, and how places are interconnected
Geographical Concepts Mental categories used to organize and analyze the world spatially
Location A natural spot on Earth
Absolute Location The exact location of a place, usually defined by latitude and longitude
Relative Location The location of a place or attribute in reference to another place or attribute
Location Theory Understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with the goal of explaining why places are chosen as sites of production or consumption
Human-Environment Interactions The relationship between humans and the physical word
Enviromental Determinism The idea that individuals and collective human behavior is fundamentally affected by, or even controlled by, the physical environment
Hearth A place where an idea, innovation, or technology evolved
Possibilism The choices that a society makes depend on what its members need and on what technology is available to them
Carrying Capacity The idea that land tam hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life
Cultural Ecology Study of how humans change their environment to meet their needs, and how humans change themselves for their environment
Political Ecology Fundamentally concerned with the environment consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and assumptions
Region Area of Earth identified as sharing a formal, functional, or perceptual community that makes it different from regions around it
Formal Region Area of land with common cultural or physical traits
Cultural Traits A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture
Functional Region An area that shares a common purpose
Nodes A connection point in a network where good ideas flow throughout it
Perceptual/Vernacular Region Images people carry in their minds based on accumulated knowledge of people, places, and things / A local language people use to communicate
Place A location that has been giving a name and a meaning; people can grow attached to a place
Sense of Place Infusing a place with meaning as a result of experiences in a place
Movement Mobility of people, foods, and services across Earth
Diffusion The spread of an idea innovation, or technology from its hearth to other people and places
Spatial Interaction Degree of connectedness or contact among people or places
Distance The length from one location to another
Accessibility Ease of flow between two places
Connectivity Position of a place or area relative to others in a network
Expansive Diffusion The spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving
Contagious Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on proximity
Hierarchical Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness
Stimulus Diffusion The process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait
Relocation Diffusion Spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by the act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them
Cultural Landscape The visible human imprint on the landscape
Sequent Occupance The imprint made by a series of people living on a a landscape
Scale Geographical scope in which we analyze and understand a phenomenon
Rescale Changing the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale
Context The physical and human geographies creating the place, environment, and space in which events occur and people act
Cartography The art and science of making maps
Reference Maps Show locations of places and geographical features
Thematic Maps A map that tells a story, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon using map symbols
Global Positioning System (GPS) Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Mental Maps Maps in our mind of places we have been and merely heard of
Activity Spaces The spaces we move through routinely
Terra Incognita Areas on maps that are not well defines because they are off limits or unknown to the map maker
Remote Sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically stint from the area of study (satellite)
Geographic Information System (GIS) A system of computer hardware and software designed to shoe, analyze, and represent geographic data (data that have locations)
Culture Group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people
Culture Complex A group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress code, cooking, and eating utensils
Created by: RomyConn
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