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Chapter 1

AP Human Geography

Geography the spatial study of people, place, space, and environment
Human Geography one of the two major divisions of geography, the spatial analysis of human phenomena, with the resources needed to produce them
Globalization processes heightening social interaction, increasing interdependence, and deepening relations across country borders
Fieldwork observations researchers make of cultural and physical landscapes observing similarities and differences
Patterns description of the spatial distribution of physical or human phenomena (e.g., scattered or concentrated)
Physical geography the other subdivision of geography; the spatial analysis of physical phenomena, including climate, environmental hazards, weather systems, animals, and topography
Spatial distribution physical locations of geographic phenomena, usually shown on a map
Pandemic an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide (e.g. coronavirus)
Epidemic widespread, rapid diffusion of disease among people specifically at a certain location or region at a particular time
Spatial perspective looking at where things occur, why they occur where they do, and how places are interconnected to each other
Geographic Concepts mental categories used to analyze the world spatially in an organized way
Location position on Earth, with includes absolute and relative location (one of the five themes of geography)
Absolute Location precise location of a place, usually defined by latitude and longitude
Relative Location the location of an attribute or place in comparison to another attribute or place
Location Theory understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with a goal of explaining why certain sites are chosen for production and consumption (e.g. von Th√ľnen model)
Human-environment reciprocal relationship between humans and environment (another theme of geography)
Environmental Determinism set of theories that use environmental differences that explain everything from intelligence to wealth
Hearth a place or area when a new innovation, idea, or technology arises
Possibilism a geographical theory that humans, not the physical environment, shape culture
Carrying Capacity the idea that land can hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life
Cultural Ecology study of the historical interaction between humans and environment in a place, including ways humans have modified and adapted to environment
Political Ecology study of human-environmental interactions in context of political, economic, and historical conditions operating at multiple scales
Region area of Earth identified as sharing a formal, function, or perceptual community which makes it distinguishable from regions around it (a theme of geography)
Formal Region an area with common cultural or physical traits
Cultural Trait a learned belief, value, or norm passed down through generations in a culture
Functional Region area of land defined as sharing a common purpose in society
Nodes connection point in a network, where goods and ideas flow in and out of the network
Perceptual/Vernacular Region area of land that some individual perceives as being similar
Place uniqueness of a location (another theme of geography)
Sense of Place infusing a place with meaning as a result of experiences in that place
Perception of Place how a place is envisioned
Movement mobility of people, goods, and services across Earth (one of the five themes of geography)
Diffusion spread of an idea, innovation, or technology from its hearth to other people and places
Spatial Interaction level of connectedness or contact among people or places
Distance the amount of space from one place to another
Accessibility ease of flow between 2 places
Connectivity position of a place or area relative to others in a network
Expansion Diffusion the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving
Contagious Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on proximity (type of expansion diffusion)
Hierarchical Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from one person or place to another person or place based on a hierarchy of connectedness (type of expansion diffusion)
Stimulus Diffusion a process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait
Relocation Diffusion spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth by act of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them
Cultural Landscape the visible human imprint on the landscape
Sequent Occupance imprints left on the cultural landscape by a series of successive societies, Each society contributed to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Scale Geographical scope (local, national, global) in which we analyze and understand a phenomenon
Rescale change the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale
Context physical and human geographies shaping the environment, place and space, where events occur and people act
Cartography the art and science of making maps
Reference Maps maps showing absolute location of places and geographic features
Thematic Maps a map that tells a story, typically showing the degree of some atribute or the movement of some geographic phenomena using symbols on the map
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-based system determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Mental maps maps of an area made from memory or experience by groups or individuals (also known as cognitive maps)
Activity Spaces places within the rounds of daily activity
Terra Incognita areas on a map that are unknown to the map maker or off limits, resulting in them not being defined well
Remote Sensing a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area of study
Geographic Information System (GIS) a system of computer hardware and software designed to show, analyze, and represent geographic data (data that have locations)
Culture group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people
Cultural Complex a group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils
Created by: pl251281
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