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Chapter 1

Human Geography

Geography the study of the spaces and places people create on the ground and in their minds, and the ways in which people use and shape the environment.
Human Geography how we organize ourselves and our activities in space; how we are connected to one another and the environment; how we make places and how those places in turn shape our lives; and how we think about and organize ourselves locally and globally.
Globalization a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and accelerating connectedness across country borders.
Fieldwork Observations researchers make of physical and cultural landscapes with a focus on seeing similarities and differences.
Patterns Description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon (e.g., scattered or concentrated).
Physical Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of physical phenomena, including climate, environmental hazards, weather systems, animals, and topography.
Spatial Distribution Physical locations of geographic phenomena, usually shown on a map.
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Epidemic Widespread, rapid diffusion of disease among a people in a particular location or region at a particular time.
Spatial perspective Looking at where things occur, why they occur where they do, and how places are interconnected.
Geographic Concepts help us think geographically, make connections, and understand case studies.
Location the geographical position of people and things on Earth’s surface.
Absolute Location the precise location of a place, usually defined by locational coordinates (latitude and longitude).
Relative Location the location of a place or attribute relative to another place or attribute.
Location Theory answer theoretical and practical locations about where something should be located or why it is located where it is
Human-environment Interactions the reciprocal (mutually affecting each other) relationship between humans and the physical world
Environmental determinism the idea that individual and collective human behavior is fundamentally affected by, or even controlled by, the physical environment.
Hearth the area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates
Possibilism The choices that a society makes depend on what its members need and on what technology is available to them.
Carrying capacity The idea that land can hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life.
Cultural Ecology Study of the historical interaction between humans and environment in a place, including ways humans have modified and adapted to environment.
Political Ecology fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and assumptions
Region an area of Earth with a degree of similarity that differentiates it from surrounding areas
Formal Region has a shared trait, either physical or cultural.
Cultural Traits A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture.
Functional Region an area that shares a common purpose.
Nodes places that function as central connecting points for a functional region.
Perplectual/Vernacular Region images people carry in their minds based on accumulated knowledge of peoples, places, and things that has such strong significance to the people that it becomes the lens through which they see their world and a way people identify themselves.
Place the uniqueness of a location
Sense of Place Infusing a place with meaning as a result of experiences in a place.
Perception of Place How a place is envisioned.
Movement the mobility of people, goods, and ideas. Movement is an expression of the interconnectedness of places.
Diffusion the spread of an idea, innovation, or technology from its hearth (origin) to other people and places.
Spatial Interaction depends on the distances between places, the accessibility of places, and the transportation and communication connectivity among places
Distance the measured physical space
Accessibility the ease of reaching one location from another
Connectivity the degree of linkage between locations in a network
Expansion Diffusion The spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving.
Contagious Diffusion When expansion diffusion occurs primarily as result of person-to-person contact
Hierarchal Diffusion a type of expansion diffusion that starts with the knowers, those who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and then diffuses through a hierarchy of most linked people or most linked places.
Stimulus Diffusion the process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait.
Relocation Diffusion occurs when an idea or innovation spreads from its hearth by the action of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them.
Cultural Landscape The visible human imprint on the landscape.
Sequent occupancy describe the imprint made by a series of people living on a landscape—each creating a layer on top of the one that came before.
Scale the distance on a map compared to the distance on Earth, and the spatial extent of something—the scale of an individual, a family, city, a state, a watershed, a continent, a region, or the world.
Rescale Changing the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale
Context the bigger picture in which a human or physical geography phenomenon takes place.
Cartography the art and science of making maps
Reference Maps show locations of places and geographic features.
Thematic Maps tell stories, typically showing the spatial distribution (clustering or dispersal) or movement of people and things.
GPS enables us to locate features on Earth with extraordinary accuracy.
Mental Maps Maps of an area made from memory or experience by individuals or groups (also known as cognitive maps).
Activity Spaces the spaces we move through routinely.
Terra Incognita unknown lands that are sometimes off-limits.
Remote Sensing a method of collecting data or information through instruments that are physically distant from the area of study.
Geographic information System combine computer hardware and software to show, analyze, and represent geographic data.
Culture Group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Culture Complex A group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Created by: kayla.giset
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