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Chapter 1

Human Geography

TermDefinition
Geography the study of the spaces and places people create on the ground and in their minds, and the ways in which people use and shape the environment.
Human geography how we organize ourselves and our activities in space; how we are connected to one another and the environment; how we make places and how those places in turn shape our lives; and how we think about and organize ourselves locally and globally.
Globalization a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and accelerating connectedness across country borders
Fieldwork “go out in the field and see what people are doing, we talk to people and observe how their actions and reactions vary across space, and we develop maps and other visualizations that help us situate and analyze what we learn.”
Patterns Description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon (e.g., scattered or concentrated)
Physical Geography the study of the spatial and material characteristics of the physical environment
Spatial Distribution Physical locations of geographic phenomena ( usually on maps)
Pandemic A worldwide outbreak of a disease
Epidemic Regional outbreak of a disease
Spatial Perspective Looking at where things happen, how they happen, and how places are interconnected
Geographic concepts include location (absolute and relative), human-environment interactions, region, place, movement, cultural landscape, scale, and context. Help us think geographically and make connections
Location Geographical position of people and things on Earth’s surface
Absolute location Precise location of something. Usually measured in coordinates ( latitude and longitude)
Relative location Where something is in relation to something or somewhere else
Location theory Understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with the goal of explaining why places are chosen as sites of production or consumption. The von Thünen model is an example.
Human- environment interactions the reciprocal (mutually affecting each other) relationship between humans and the physical world
Environmental determinism the idea that individual and collective human behavior is fundamentally affected by, or even controlled by, the physical environment.
Hearth the area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates
Possibilism “The choices that a society makes depend on what its members need and on what technology is available to them”
Carrying capacity an area of land can support a certain number of people and species ( no more)
Cultural ecology concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to and alteration of the environment
Political ecology fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and assumptions
Region an area of Earth with a degree of similarity that differentiates it from surrounding areas.
Formal region An area of land with a shared trait, either physical or cultural
Cultural traits A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture.
Functional region An area that has a common purpose
Nodes places that function as central connecting points for a functional region
Perceptual/vernacular region Images people carry in their minds based on accumulated knowledge of peoples, places, and things.
Place The uniqueness of a location
Sense of place Infusing a place with a meaning based on personal experiences of that place
Perception of place Someone’s view on a place through secondhand information (movies, books, etc)
Movement Mobility of people, goods, and services across Earth (one of the five themes of geography)
Diffusion the spread of an idea, innovation, or technology from its hearth (origin) to other people and places
Spatial interaction Degree of connectedness or contact among people or places
Distance The measured physical space between 2 places
Accessibility How easy it is to reach one place from another
Connectivity Position of a place or area relative to others in a network.
Expansion diffusion The spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth across space without the aid of people moving
Contagious diffusion When expansion diffusion occurs primarily as result of person-to-person contact
Hierarchical diffusion a type of expansion diffusion that starts with the knowers, those who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and then diffuses through a hierarchy of most linked people or most linked places.
Stimulus diffusion the process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait
Relocation diffusion when an idea or innovation spreads from its hearth by the action of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them. primarily happens through migration.
Cultural landscape The visible human imprint on a landscape
Sequent occupance the imprint made by a series of people living on a landscape—each creating a layer on top of the one that came before
Scale
Rescale
Geographical scope (local, national, or global) in which we analyze and understand a phenomenon
Changing the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale.
Context the bigger picture in which a human or physical geography phenomenon takes place.
Cartography The art and science of making maps, as old as geography itself
Reference maps show locations of places and geographic features.
Thematic maps A map that tells a story, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon using map symbols.
Global Positioning System GPS. Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Mental maps maps in our minds of places we have been and places we have merely heard of.
Activity spaces The spaces we move through routinely
Terra incognita Areas on maps that are not well defined because they are off limits or unknown to the map maker
Remote sensing is a method of collecting data or information through instruments that are physically distant from the area of study.
Geographic information systems GIS. combine computer hardware and software to show, analyze, and represent geographic data
Culture Group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Culture complex A group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Created by: SchoolEnjoyer96
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