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Chapter 1 APHG

Human Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human phenomena; including population, cultures, activities, and landscapes.
Geography The study of the spaces and places people create on the ground and in their minds, and the ways in which people use and shape the environment.
Globalization A set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and accelerating connectedness across country borders.
Fieldwork Observations researchers make of physical and cultural landscapes with a focus on seeing similarities and differences.
Patterns Description of the spatial distribution of a human or physical phenomenon. (ex: scattered or concentrated)
Physical Geography The study of the spatial and material characteristics of the physical environment.
Spatial Distribution Physical locations of geographic phenomena, usually shown on a map.
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads to a worldwide level.
Epidemic Widespread, rapid diffusion of disease among a people in a particular location or region at a particular time.
Spatial Perspective Looking at where things occur, why they occur where they do, and how places are interconnected.
Geographic Concepts Mental categories used to organize and analyze the world spacially.
Location The geographical position of people and things on Earth's surface.
Absolute Location The precise location of a place, usually defined by locational coordinates (longitude and latitude).
Relative Location The location of a place or attribute relative to another place or attribute.
Location Theory Understanding the distribution of cities, industries, services, or consumers with the goal of explaining why places are chosen as sites of population or consumption.
Human-environment interactions The relationship between humans and the physical world.
Environmental determinism The idea that individual and collective human behavior is fundamentally affected by, or even controlled by, the physical environment.
Hearth Area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates.
Possibilism The choices that a society makes depend on what its members need and on what technology is available to them. (The theory that humans, not environment, shape culture)
Carrying Capacity The idea that land can hold a measurable amount of plant and animal life.
Cultural Ecology Study of the historical interaction between humans and environment in a place, including ways humans have modified and adapted to environment.
Political Ecology An approach to studying human-environment interactions in the context of political, economic, and historical conditions operating at multiple scales.
Region An area of Earth with a degree of similarity that differentiates it from surrounding areas.
Formal Region Area of land with common cultural or physical traits.
Cultural Traits A learned belief, norm, or value passed down through generations in a culture.
Functional Region An area that shares a common purpose in society.
Nodes Places that function as central connecting points for a functional region.
Perceptual Region Images people carry in their minds based on accumulated knowledge of peoples, places, and things.
Place Uniqueness of a location. (one of the five themes of geography)
Sense of Place Infusing a place with meaning as a result of experiences in a place.
Vernacular Region A perceptual region that has such a strong significance to the people in the perceptual region that it becomes the lens through which they see their world and a way people identify themselves.
Perception of Place How a place is envisioned.
Movement The mobility of people, goods, and ideas; an expression of the interconnectedness of places.
Diffusion The spread of an idea, innovation, or technology from its hearth to other people and places.
Spatial Interaction Degree of connectedness or contact among people or places.
Distance The measured physical space between places or things.
Accessibility The ease of reaching one location from another.
Connectivity The degree of of linkage between locations in a network.
Expansion Diffusion An innovation or idea that develops in a hearth and remains strong there while also spreading outward.
Contagious Diffusion When expansion diffusion occurs primarily as a result of person-to-person contact.
Hierarchal Diffusion A type of expansion diffusion that starts with the knowers, those who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and then diffuses through a hierarchy of most linked people or most linked places.
Stimulus Diffusion The process of diffusion where two cultural traits blend to create a distinct trait.
Relocation Diffusion Occurs when an idea or innovation spreads from its hearth by the action of people moving and taking the idea or innovation with them.
Cultural Landscape The visible imprint of human activity on the landscape.
Sequent Occupance Imprints left on the cultural landscape by a series of successive societies. Each society contributed to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Scale Distance on a map compared to the distance on Earth, OR the spatial extent of something.
Rescale Changing the geographical scope at which a problem is addressed by engaging decision makers and gatekeepers at another scale.
Context The bigger picture in which a human or physical geography phenomenon takes place.
Cartography The art and science of making maps.
Reference maps Maps that show locations of places and geographic features.
Thematic maps Maps that tell stories, typically showing the spatial distribution (clustering or dispersal) or movement of people and things.
Global Positioning System (GPS) Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
Mental maps Maps of an area made from memory or experience by individuals or groups. (AKA cognitive maps)
Activity spaces The spaces we move through routinely/ places within the rounds of daily activity.
Terra Incognita Areas on maps that are not well-defined because they are off limits or unknown to the map maker.
Remote sensing A method of collecting data or information through instruments that are physically distant from the area of study. (ex. Satellites)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) A system of computer hardware and software designed to show, analyze, and represent geographic data (data that have locations).
Culture A group of belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Culture Complex A group of interrelated cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Created by: Pl251291
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