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APHG Topic 1.1

TermDefinition
Space the physical gap or interval between two objects
Scale ratio between the size of things on the map and the size of things on the ground; global, regional, national, local
Cartogram sizes are shown according to some specific statistic
Spatial Patterns general physical arrangement of things being studied
Reference Maps designed for people to refer to to get general info about a place
Thematic Maps show spatial aspects of information or a phenomenon
Choropleth Maps use various colors, shades of one color, or patterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data
Dot Distribution Maps used to show the specific location and distribution of something across the territory of a map; each dot represents a specified quantity
Graduated Symbol Maps uses map symbols that vary in size to represent different amounts of something; also known as Graduated Circle/Proportional Symbol Map
Isoline Maps lines drawn on a map to connect points of equal value; ex: topographic maps (show elevation) or weather maps (show average precipitation, temperature)
Mental Maps/Cognitive Maps maps people create in their own minds based on their own experience and knowledge
Site a place's absolute location, as well as its physical characteristics such as the landforms, climate, and resources
Situation a place's relative location; location relative to another place
Clustering grouped together
Map Projection used to show the curved surface of the earth on a flat surface
Mercator Projection lines of latitude and longitude meet at right angles, directions are shown accurately; land masses near the poles appear large
Gall-Peters Projection sizes of land masses are accurate; shapes are inaccurate, especially near the poles
Conic Projection lines of longitude come together at one pole, lines of latitude are curved, size and shape are both close to reality, direction is not constant
Robinson Projection area, shape, size, and direction are all slightly distorted; it's an oval shape rather than rectangular
Spatial Relationships the relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature
Quantitative Data information that can be measured and recorded using numbers
Qualitative Data data that is descriptive and is often based on people's opinions
Physical Maps map that shows natural features of the earth
Spatial Association matching patterns of distribution indicating that two or more phenomena maybe related, or associated, with one another

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