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de- separation from
edem- swelling
-emia blood condition
extra outside
im- not
intra within
neutr- neither one
-osis state of
-uria urine condition
water by weight for females /males 52/63
intracellular fluid compartment contains all the water and electrolytes that cell membranes enclose 63% by volume of total body water
extracellular fluid compartment includes all the fluid outside cells—in tissue spaces (interstitial fluid), blood vessels (plasma), and lymphatic vessels (lymph) 37% of total body water
transcellular fluid includes cerebrospinal fluid of the central nervous system, aqueous and vitreous humors of the eyes, synovial fluid of the joints, and serous fluid in the body cavities.
The total solute concentration of a body fluid determines its osmolarity
osmoles The total number of dissolved particles determines the osmolarity of body solutions, irrespective of the source
heat stroke First-headache, dizziness, exhaustion. Sweating is profuse then becomes dry, hot and red. Respiratory rate rises and pulse up to 180 bpm. if no cooling, neurological issues, disorientation, hallucination. Kidney failure or death may happen.
Therefore, the primary means of regulating water output is control of urine production.
osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus help control release of ADH
When ADH reaches the kidneys increasing water reabsorption by it increases the permeability of the last portion of the distal tubules and the full lengths of the collecting ducts to water
3 electrolytes that are high in extracellular fluid sodium, chloride, bicarbonate ions
what is the net inward force that shifts fluid from interstitial spaces into capillaries? colloid osmotic pressure
fluid moves from interstitial fluid into lymphatic capillaries due to ___ pressure of the interstitial fluid hydrostatic
the ____ pressure of intracellular fluid and surrounding interstitial fluid is ordinarily equal and stable hydrostatic
what is the result of mvmt of water following change in sodium concentrations in body fluids equal water and electrolyte concentrations inside and outside cells
a ____ in water content of extracellular fluid leads to ____ osmolarity of blood and the sensation of thirst. decrease; increased
the hydrostatic pressure that causes fluid to leave plasma at the arteriole end of capillaries is due to ___ blood pressure
in the absence of ADH, ___ water is reabsorbed from the renal tubes and more urine is produced less
which situation results in reduced urine output increased ADH
hypoproteinemia decreases the osmotic pressure of blood plasma, ___ the mvmt of interstitial fluid into the venule end of the capillary, causing edema decreasing
how does alcohol consumption lead to an increase in urine inhibiting ADH release
what force causes interstitial fluid to enter lymphatic capillaries? hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid
3 conditions associated with thirst loss of water by the body, Increased blood osmolarity, Increased osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid
the return of fluid from the interstitial spaces to plasma at the venular ends of capillaries is due to the presence of ____ in plasma that provide colloid osmotic pressure proteins
which situation results in increased urine output decreased
electrolytes that release hydrogen ions are acids
substances that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions are bases
the 3 most important buffer systems in the body are the bicarbonate, phosphate, protein
acid-base buffer systems take up _____ ions when body fluids are becoming more acidic hydrogen
acid-base buffer systems give up_____ ions when the fluids are becoming more basic hydrogen
The _______ areas in the brainstem help regulate hydrogen ion concentrations in the body fluids by controlling the rate and depth of breathing. respiratory
______ are called the body’s first line of defense against shifts in pH. chemical buffer systems
______function more slowly and constitute the second line of defense. Physiological buffer systems, such as the respiratory and renal mechanisms,
Excessive loss of carbon dioxide and consequent loss of carbonic acid cause respiratory alkalosis
excessive loss of hydrogen ions or gain of bases. Metabolic alkalosis
_______ develops as a result of hyperventilation Respiratory alkalosis
compensation resist the change in pH
Created by: ciqbal



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