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APHY CH 14&15

Blood & Cardiovascular

agglutin- to glue together
bil- bile
-crit to separate
embol- stopper
erythr- red
hema- blood
hemo- blood
hepa- liver
leuko- white
-lys to break up
macro- large
-osis abnormal condition
-poie make
poly- many
-stasis halt
thromb- clot
HCT hematocrit
PVC packed cell volume
what is HCT and PVC? the percentage of red blood cells by volume in a blood sample
What is the approx percentages of blood? 45% red blood cells, ~55% plasma, ~1% white and platelets
Plasma is a complex mixture that includes water, gases, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes
hematopoiesis is the formation of blood cells
hematopoietic stem cells also known as hemocytoblasts, give rise to red blood cells in red bone marrow
hematopoietic stem cells divide into myeloid and lymphoid stem cells
hematopoietic growth factors turn some genes on or off
oxyhemoglobin When hemoglobin combines with oxygen resulting in brighter blood
deoxyhemoglobin when the oxygen is released, the resulting in darker blood
blood rich in deoxyhemoglobin looks blue in veins
cyanosis Prolonged oxygen deficiency (hypoxia)
RBCC or RCC number of red blood cells in a microliter (μL or mcL or 1mm3) of blood
erythropoietin (EPO) controls the rate of red blood cell formation.
EPO is released from the kidneys and to a lesser extent from the liver.
polycythemia An excessive increase in red blood cells, This increases blood viscosity, slowing blood flow and impairing circulation
what is required for hemoglobin synthesis. Iron
Hemoglobin molecules liberated from the red blood cells break down into their four component polypeptide “globin” chains, each surrounding a heme group
Leukocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells in the red bone marrow in response to hormones
neutrophil a type of phagocytic white blood cell containing cytoplasmic granules that react with neurtal pH stain
neutrophils do what? phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses
eosinophils contain coarse, uniformly sized cytoplasmic granules that stain deep red in acid stain
basophils similar to eosinophils in size and in the shape of their nuclei but they have fewer, more irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules than eosinophils, and these granules appear deep blue in basic stain
The leukocytes of the agranulocyte group include monocytes and lymphocytes
monocytes arise from cells in the red bone marrow and enter the blood.
lymphocytes form in the red bone marrow, then enter the blood and migrate to lymphatic tissues.
Monocytes leave the bloodstream and become macrophages that phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and other debris in the tissues.
The major types of lymphocytes are Tcells and Bcells
diapedesis movement of leukocytes between the cells of blood vessel walls
ameboid motion. leukocytes move through interstitial spaces using a form of self-propulsion
positive chemotaxis movement of the cell towards the greater concentration of a substance
differential white blood cell count lists percentages of the various types of leukocytes in a blood sample.
angio- vessel
ather- porridge
brady- slow
diastol- dilation
edem- swelling
-gram something written
lun- moon
myo- muscle
papill- nipple
phleb- vein
scler- hard
syn- together
systol- contraction
tachy- rapid
where is the heart located?` is in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity, superior to the diaphragm.
pericardium covering that encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches.
sections of the pericardium fibrous pericardium, visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium
pulmonary circuit sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide
systemic circuit sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes.
The right ventricle forces blood to the lungs
The left ventricle forces blood to all other body parts
The wall of the heart is composed of three distinct layers: an outer epicardium, a middle myocardium, and an inner endocardium
epicardium, which corresponds to the visceral pericardium protects the heart by reducing friction, is a serous membrane that consists of connective tissue covered by epithelium, it includes capillaries and nerve fibers. deeper portion of the epicardium typically contains adipose tissue (along arteries and veins)
The middle layer of the heart wall, or myocardium is thick and consists largely of the cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of the heart chambers. The muscle fibers lie in planes that are separated by connective tissues richly supplied with blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers.
The inner layer of the heart wall, or endocardium consists of epithelium and underlying connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagen fibers.
atria The upper chambers, have thin walls and receive blood returning to the heart.
auricles Small, earlike projections that extend anteriorly from the atria, slightly increasing atrial volume
ventricles The lower chambers that force the blood out of the heart into arteries.
interatrial septum separates right from left ventricle
atrioventricular orifice Opening between the atrium and the ventricle on each side of the heart.
atrioventricular valve Cardiac valve between an atrium and a ventricle.
atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus groove on the surface of the heart that marks the division between an atrium and a ventricle
interventricular (anterior and posterior) sulci mark the septum that separates the right and left ventricles
vena cava one of two large veins that conveys blood to the heart
superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava these veins return blood, which is low in oxygen, from tissues.
coronary sinus drains venous blood into the right atrium from the myocardium of the heart.
tricuspid valve guards the atrioventricular orifice between the right atrium and the right ventricle, It is composed of three leaflets, or cusps,
chordae tendineae attach to the cusps of the tricuspid valve on the ventricular side
papillary muscle any of the muscles that extend inward from the ventricle wall of the heart and to which the chordae tendineae attach
left parts of the heart 4 pulmonary veins (2 from each lung), atrioventricular orifice, mitral valve (bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve)
aortic valve valve in the aorta near it's origin that prevents blood from returning to the left ventricle of the heart
The path of blood Systemic circuit-venae cavae & coronary sinus-right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary trunk-pulmonary arteries-alveolar capillaries-pulmonary veins-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta-out to system circuit
right and left coronary arteries supply blood to the wall of the heart, openings lie just superior to the aortic valve
anastamoses connections between vessels that provide alternate pathways for blood
collateral circulation alternate pathways for blood
ischemia thrombus or embolus that partially blocks or narrows a coronary artery branch causes a decrease in blood flow
angina pectoris a painful condition produced from deprived myocardial cells of oxygen,
myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack a blood clot that completely obstructs a coronary artery (coronary thrombosis), killing tissue in that part of the heart.
systole contraction of the heart chambers
diastole relaxation of the heart chambers
cardiac cycle complete heart beat
if a ventricle is in systole an atrium must be in what? diastole
functional syncytium A mass of merging cells that act as a unit, those of the heart are joined electrically, in atrial and ventricular walls
autorhythmic able to initiate contraction itself without external nervous stimulation
cardiac conduction ­system system of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conduct cardiac impulses from the SA node throughout the myocardium.
SA node (sinoatrial) is a small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium. in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava, and its cells are continuous with those of the atrial syncytium
path of a cardiac impulse SA node-atrial syncytium-junctional fibers-AV node-AV bundle-Bundle branches-Purkinje fibers-ventricular syncytium
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle. (This pattern occurs as action potentials stimulate cardiac muscle cells to contract, but it is not the same as individual action potentials.)
what chamber of the heart pushes blood into the aorta? Left ventricle
describe the aortic valve three semilunar cusps at the base of the aorta
what vessels brings oxygen to the right atrium coronary sinus, superior AND inferior vena cava
what is the direct result of the SA node depolarizing? simultaneous contraction of the atria
what causes blood to be ejected from the heart? when ventricular pressure is greater than arterial pressure
specialized cells within the heart that incite impulses and coordinate the cardiac cycle are part of the ____ cardiac conduction system
the QRS wave of an ECG represents what event in the heart? depolarization of the ventricles
The tributaries of the hepatic portal vein include the following vessels: right and left gastric veins from the stomach, superior mesenteric vein, splenic vein ,inferior mesenteric vein
right atrioventrical tricuspid valve
arteries carry blood away from the ventricles of the heart
aterioles receive blood from the arteries, and carry it to the capillaries.
Capillaries sites of exchange of substances between the blood and the body cells.
venules receive blood from the capillaries, and conduct it to veins.
veins receive blood from venules, and carry it back to the atria of the heart.
angiogenesis Formation of new blood vessels
Angiogenesis is mainly controlled by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
Promoting angiogenesis: Body secretes VEGF in response to blocked coronary artery.•If this is not sufficient, VEGF may be able to be delivered in time-release capsules
Preventing angiogenesis Tumors secrete VEGF to nourish themselves.•Antiangiogenesis drugs are used to treat cancer and age-related macular degeneration.
Arteries Thick, strong wall, than walls of veins3 layers/tunics:•Tunica interna (intima): innermost layer.•media: smooth muscle & elastic tissue.•externa (adventitia): outer/connective tissue.Transport blood w high blood pressure.Give rise to smaller arterioles.
arterioles Thinner wall than arteries (same 3 layers or tunics).•Walls of middle and outer layers become thinner as arterioles become smaller.Both arteries and arterioles can undergo vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
capillaries smallest-diameter blood vessels/Connect smallest arterioles and the smallest venules•extensions of the inner lining of arterioles•Walls consist of endothelium (simple squamous)only
capillaries also •semi-permeable•blood flow regulated by precapillary sphincters: smooth muscle surrounding capillary at branchoff Openings in walls of capillaries are thin slits where endothelial cells overlap. Sizes of openings vary; permeability varies with size
Diffusion: Most important method of transfer.•Lipid-soluble substances diffuse through cell membrane; water-soluble substances diffuse through membrane channels and slits.
Filtration Hydrostatic pressure forces molecules through membrane.•Pressure is derived from ventricular contraction.
osmosis Presence of impermeant solute, such as plasma proteins, inside capillaries creates osmotic pressure.•Osmotic pressure draws water into capillaries, opposing filtration.
venules Microscopic vessels that transport blood from the capillaries to veins.•Thinner walls and less smooth muscle than arterioles.
veins Thinner walls than arteries (3 layers or tunics).•Tunica media less developed.•Carry blood under relatively low pressure.•Function as blood reservoirs.•Many have flap-like valves:
about ___ of blood is in veins and venules at a given time? two thirds
Atherosclerosis: Deposits of cholesterol plaque form in inner lining of walls of arteries.
Aneurysm A bulge in the wall of an artery, formed when blood pressure dilates a weakened area of the vessel; can burst wall of artery.
Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein; common disorder.
Varicose Veins Abnormal and irregular dilations in superficial veins; most common in legs.
Arterial blood pressure: Rises when the ventricles contract.•Falls when the ventricles relax.
Systolic pressure (SP): the maximum pressure reached during ventricular contraction.
Diastolic pressure (DP) the minimum pressure remaining before next ventricular contraction.
Pulse pressure (PP): difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SP −DP).
Mean arterial pressure (MAP): Average pressure in arterial system; represents average force driving blood to the tissues DP+1/3PP
Stroke volume (SV): Volume of blood that enters the arteries with each ventricular contraction
Cardiac output (CO) Volume of blood discharged from a ventricle each minute Cardiac output = Stroke volume × Heart rate
Blood Volume: •Sum of volumes of plasma and formed elements.Usually about 5 L for adults (about 4 to 5 liters in a female and 5 to 6 liters in a male).•8% of body weight.Blood pressure (BP) is directly proportional to blood volume.
Peripheral Resistance (PR):• Force of friction between blood and walls of blood vessels. Factors that change PR also change blood pressure.•Vasoconstriction of arterioles increases PR, which increases the blood pressure.
Viscosity: •Difficulty with which molecules of fluid flow past each other.•Greater the viscosity, the greater the resistance to blood flow. Blood cells and plasma proteins increase the viscosity of the blood.
Control of blood pressure is: Blood pressure (BP) is determined by cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR)
Hypertension (high blood pressure): •Long-lasting elevated arterial blood pressure. Contributes to formation of atherosclerosis
Central Venous Pressure Pressure in the right atrium ,All veins, except those returning to the heart from the lungs, drain into the right atrium. It affects pressure within the peripheral veins.
A weakly beating heart increases central venous pressure.
An increase in central venous pressure causes blood to back up into the peripheral veins, This can lead to peripheral edema.
Increase in blood volume or venoconstriction increases blood flow to right atrium, which increases central venous pressure.
Blood vessels form 2 pathways: •The pulmonary circuit.•The systemic circuit .
Pulmonary circuit route: Right ventricle →pulmonary trunk →right and left pulmonary arteries →lobar branches, repeated divisions →pulmonary arterioles →pulmonary capillaries →pulmonary venules and veins →left atrium.
Pulmonary circuit characteristics: Blood in pulmonary arteries and arterioles is low in O2 and high in CO2.•Gas exchange occurs in pulmonary (alveolar) capillaries.•Blood in pulmonary venules and veins is rich in O2 and low in CO2
systemic circuit route Left ventricle →aorta →all arteries and arterioles leading to body tissues →systemic capillaries →systemic venules and veins →right atrium.
systemic circuit characteristics Oxygen-rich blood moves from left atrium to left ventricle.•Contraction of left ventricle sends blood into systemic circuit.
Branches of thesubclavian and common carotid arteries supply blood to the brain, head and neck.
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)joins what systems the carotid and vertebral artery systems.
The external iliac arteries provide the major blood supply the lower limbs
common iliac arteries supply what with blood supply blood to the pelvic organs, gluteal region, and lower limbs.
internal iliac artery supplies blood to the pelvic and gluteal areas.
Characteristics of venous pathways Unlike arterial pathways, those of the venous system are difficult to follow, due to irregular networks and unnamed tributaries,Pathways of larger veins usually parallel arteries of the same name
Vessels of the venous system originate from the merging of capillaries into venules, venules into small veins, and small veins into larger ones.
All systemic veins converge into the superior and inferior venae cavae, and return to the heart through the right atrium.
The external jugular veins drain blood from the face, scalp, and superficial neck.
The internal jugular veins drain blood from the brain, and deep portions of the face and neck.
Order of Deep set of veins: Digital veins →radial and ulnar veins →brachial veins
Order of Superficial set of veins: Anastomoses in palm and wrist →basilic and cephalicveins.Basilic vein joins brachial vein, and cephalic vein joins axillary vein.
The abdominal and thoracic walls are drained by tributaries of the brachiocephalic and azygos veins.
The azygos vein drains directly into the superior vena cava.
The abdominal viscera are drained by a unique venous pathway, called the hepatic portal system.
Blood from capillaries in the stomach, intestines,pancreas, and spleen drain into the hepatic portal vein
longest vein in the body. Great saphenous vein
lower limb blood flow Deep set of veins: Veins in foot → anterior and posterior tibial veins → popliteal vein →femoral vein →external iliac vein
lower limb blood flow Superficial set of veins Veins in foot →small and great saphenous veins.
****The __________ ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary circuit, while the __________ ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circuit. right, left
when the right ventricle contracts blood is pushed through the ____ valve into the pulmonary trunk. pulmonary
the left atrioventricular valve is also called the ____ valve mitral
The systemic circuit sends oxygen-rich blood to the tissues.
A pump is attached to the common carotid artery and red ink is pumped in. Which structures of the body will show the red ink? neck and head
In mitral valve prolapse, the mitral valve bulges into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
Venules continue from capillaries to form veins, which return blood to the atria. T/F True
Water and dissolved substances leave the arteriole end of a capillary due to __________, and enter the venule end of a capillary due to __________. hydrostatic pressure being higher than osmotic pressure; osmotic pressure being higher than hydrostatic pressure
Plasma proteins in capillaries help to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood.
The external carotid arteries branch to supply structures in the neck and face
The radial and ulnar veins merge to form the __________ vein. brachial
When a person's pulse is taken by palpation near the thumb on the wrist, which artery is felt? Radial
When smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries are stimulated to contract, blood pressure increases
A cold, pale foot could be a sign of a blockage of blood flow in the __________ artery. popliteal
The pressure in the pulmonary circuit is __________ the pressure in the systemic circuit. less than
pulmonary circuit sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
The coronary sinus drains blood from the wall of the heart into the left atrium. T/F
Because net inward pressure in the venular ends of capillaries is less than net outward pressure in the arteriolar ends of capillaries, more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns.
In the arterial disease atherosclerosis, risk of a thrombus or embolus forming increases.
In the cardiovascular system, what vessels are the site of nutrient, gas, and waste exchange? capillaries
The blood pressure in the large systemic arteries is greatest during ventricular systole
The aorta is the largest artery in the pulmonary circuit. T/F False
The structures that contain chemoreceptors that detect blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are the aortic bodies
Created by: ciqbal



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