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CH13

Endocrine System

TermDefinition
cort- bark, rind: cortex outer part of something
-crin to secrete
diure- to pass urine
endo- inside
exo- outside
horm- impetus, impulse (hormone) it affects other cells
hyper- above
hypo- below
lact- milk
med- middle
para- beside
toc- birth (oxyTOCin)
-tropic influencing
vas- vessel
target cells cells that are acted upon by hormones
stomach acid reaching the lumen of the digestive tract exocrine gland
sweat released at skin's surface exocrine gland
glands that secrete substances that are not hormones into internal environment paracrine, autocrine
secretions that enter the interstitial fluid but affect only nearby cells paracrine
secretions which affect only the cell secreting the substance. autocrine
where do hormones interact with target cells receptors, which are proteins or glycoproteins, at binding cites,
What do endocrine glands and their hormones play a part in in the body? regulate metabolic processes,control the rates of certain chemical reactions; aid in transporting substances through membranes, regulate water balance, electrolyte balance, and blood pressure, play vital roles in reproduction, development, and growth.
larger/main endocrine glands pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, and pancreas
2 types of hormones steroid and nonsteroid
amines, peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. nonsteroids
How do steroids differ by the types and numbers of atoms attached to these rings and the ways they are joined
what are steroid hormones derived from? cholesterol
what do steroid hormones include? They include sex hormones such as testosterone and the estrogens, and secretions of the adrenal cortex, including aldosterone and cortisol. Vitamin D is a modified steroid.
Where does Vitamin D become a hormone from a modified steroid? kidneys and liver
amines norepinephrine and epinephrine, are derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
amines are synthesized in the adrenal medulla
glycoproteins Certain other hormones secreted from the anterior pituitary gland are
Protein hormones composed of long chains of amino acids that are linked and folded into specific molecular structures
protein hormones include the hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland and some of those secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
short chains of amino acids peptide hormones
peptide hormones include hormones associated with the posterior pituitary gland and some produced in the hypothalamus.
prostaglandins paracrine substances, regulate neighboring cells and are lipids
prostaglandins are synthesized from a type of fatty acid (arachidonic acid) in cell membranes
prostaglandins are produced in a wide variety of cells, including those of the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, thymus, pancreas, brain, and reproductive organs.
what produces a greater response from a hormone binding to a target cell binding more receptors by a hormone
Upregulation is an increase in the number of receptors on a target cell
Downregulation a decrease in the number of receptors in response to a prolonged increase in hormone levels
which hormones are soluble in lipids? steroid, thyroid hormones
aldosterone secreted from the adrenal glands and stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium.
signal transduction entire process of chemical communication, from outside cells to inside
adenylate cyclase enzyme activated when certain hormones bind receptors on cell membranes. It catalyses the circularization of ATP to cyclic AMP
protein kinase enzyme that catalyses phosphorylation of a protein
Cellular responses to second messenger activation include altering membrane permeabilities, activating enzymes, promoting synthesis of certain proteins, stimulating or inhibiting specific metabolic pathways, promoting cellular movements, and initiating secretion of hormones and other substances.
how much prostaglandins are needed? are present in small amounts, but are potent.
are prostaglandins stored? they are not stored in cells; instead they are synthesized just before they are released. They are rapidly inactivated.
what controls the anterior pituitary gland’s release of hormones. hypothalmus
Hormones that act on other glands are called tropic hormones
what hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete? epinephrine and norepinephrine
what part of the pituitary gland secrete synthesized hormones? anterior
what hormones does the pituitary glands posterior lobe secrete? antidiuretic (ADH) and oxytocin
what lobe does an infant possess that adults do not? intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland
what does the intermediate lobe produce melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) produces melanin
where are the 3 portal systems? hepatic in the intestines, efferent arteriole of kidney, hypophyseal portal vein in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
what does growth hormone do? somatotropin(STH), stimulates cells to enlarge & more rapidly divide, enhances the movement of amino acids through cell membranes & increases the rate of protein synthesis, decreases the rate at which cells use carbohydrates& increases the rate at which they use fats.
What stimulates secretion of growth hormone? Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
what inhibits secretion of growth hormone? somatostatin (SS), also called GH-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone secreted from anterior pituitary gland that controls secretion from the thyroid gland; is a glycoprotein
what causes an enlarged thyroid gland, or goiter? abnormally high Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone/ “corticotropin" peptide that controls the manufacture and secretion of certain hormones from the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland.
gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. They are glycoproteins
what are ways hormones are controlled? a gland secretes hormones when it detects levels are low, the hypothalamus stimulates glands to secrete a hormone
which endocrine gland is house in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone? pituitary gland
what hormones are made by the anterior pituitary lobe? TSH, ACTH, GH, LH, PRL
what would cause an increased release of ADH from the pituitary gland? decreased blood volume, decreased water intake, increased osmotic pressure in blood
What do thymosins do? aid in immunity and control production and differentiation of white blood cells.
what are some effects of glucagon coversion of noncarbs into glucose, raises blood glucose levels, stimulates liver to breakdown of glycogen
what hormones are produced by the thyroid gland? T3, T4, calcitonin
calcitonin ____ calcium levels lowers
parathyroid hormone ____ calcium levels raises
where is pancreas located? posterior to the stomach and parietal peritoneum
characteristics of endocrine glands ductless and secrete into blood stream
which hormones are secreted by adrenal medulla epinephrine, norepinephrine
general functions of adrenal hormones respond to stress, maintain blood sodium levels
the secretion of parathyroid is regulated by the concentration of ____ in blood? sodium
follicular cells synthesize two hormones, affect metabolic rates in other cells
extrafollicular cells synthesize one hormone, affect calcium blood concentration
Created by: ciqbal
 

 



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