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Chapter 5

Byers et al 2017 Chapter 5

QuestionAnswerFeedback Byers 2017 pg numbers
In which of the following climates can human remains, found on the surface, be reduced to a skeleton in a single year? (A) Warm, moist (B) Hot, dry (C) Cold (D) All of the above (D) All of the above pp. 112–118
Which of the following processes causes a body to become naturally preserved? (A) Autolysis (B) Putrefication (C) Insect activity (D) Mummification (D) Mummification p. 112
Which of the following processes causes the breakdown of muscle, internal organs and other tissue? (A) Autolysis (B) Putrefication (C) Insect activity (D) All of the above (B) Putrefication pp. 110–111
Which of the following processes causes a body to be digested as though it were food? (A) Autolysis (B) Putrefication (C) Insect activity (D) All of the above (A) Autolysis p. 110
Which of the following is the study of what plants growing in, and around, human remains can tell about PMI and other factors? (A) Forensic taphonomy (B) Forensic entomology (C) Forensic botany (D) All of the above (C) Forensic botany p. 109
Which of the following is the study of what happens to a biological organism between death and its discovery? (A) Forensic taphonomy (B) Forensic entomology (C) Forensic botany (D) All of the above (A) Forensic taphonomy p. 109
By knowing the amount of soft tissue lost and average temperature of the water in which a body is discovered, PMI can be calculated. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 119–121
In which of the following climates can human remains, found on the surface, appear to be fresh for a day or two? (A) Warm, moist (B) Hot, dry (C) A and B (D) None of the above (D) All of the above pp. 112–119
A body is discovered in near Albuquerque, New Mexico (a hot, dry area), with no evidence that it was ever buried. The flesh is sagging and less than half of the skeleton is visible. The bones that are visible have a greasy look and feel; however, the left foot is fully skeletonized, with a little desiccated soft tissue on its dry bone. A cotton skirt shows a small amount of deterioration while nylon stockings located near the body are in good condition. The most likely time since death is (D) 2.5 to 3 months se range chart, pp. 20–21
A body is discovered in near Albuquerque, New Mexico (a hot, dry area), with no evidence that it was ever buried. The flesh is sagging and less than half of the skeleton is visible. The bones that are visible have a greasy look and feel; however, the left foot is fully skeletonized, with a little desiccated soft tissue on its dry bone. A cotton skirt shows a small amount of deterioration while nylon stockings located near the body are in good condition. The time since death based on carnivore markings is: (D) unknown pp. 121–123
A body is discovered in near Albuquerque, New Mexico (a hot, dry area), with no evidence that it was ever buried. The flesh is sagging and less than half of the skeleton is visible. The bones that are visible have a greasy look and feel; however, the left foot is fully skeletonized, with a little desiccated soft tissue on its dry bone. A cotton skirt shows a small amount of deterioration while nylon stockings located near the body are in good condition. The time since death based on clothing is: (B) 1 to 3 months p. 127
body is discovered in near Albuquerque, New Mexico (a hot, dry area), with no evidence that it was ever buried. The flesh is sagging and less than half of the skeleton is visible. The bones that are visible have a greasy look and feel; however, the left foot is fully skeletonized, with a little desiccated soft tissue on its dry bone. A cotton skirt shows a small amount of deterioration while nylon stockings located near the body are in good condition. The approximate time since death is: (C) 2.5 to 4 months pp. 115–118
Which of these items shows the most deterioration when exposed to weather and other environmental factors? (A) Rayon (B) Cotton (C) Wool (D) Acrylic (B) Cotton p. 127
Which of these items shows the least deterioration when exposed to weather and other environmental factors? (A) Paper money (B) Cotton (C) Wool (D) Acrylic (D) Acrylic p. 127
Scavenging by dogs and coyotes can take which of the following forms? (A) Consumption of soft tissue (B) Destruction of the anterior chest and abdomen (C) Removal of body segments (D) All of the above (D) All of the above pp. 121–123
In which of the following climates can submerged human remains be reduced to a skeleton in two or more years? (A) Warm, moist (B) Hot, dry (C) Cold (D) All of the above (D) All of the above pp. 112–119
Paper money, in good condition, is found in the jeans pocket of a buried body. From this information, it is probable that the person has been dead only about 6 months. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 127
A buried body is excavated and found to be clothed in nylons, a wool skirt and a silk blouse, all of which are in very poor condition. From this information, it is probable that this woman has been dead for at least a year. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 127
Paper money, in a severely deteriorated state, is found in the jeans pocket of a body found on the surface. From this information, it is probable that the person has been dead only about 6 months. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 127
Advanced decomposition in all climates involves some level of skeletonization. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 114–118
Skeletonization is not one of the phases of decomposition in hot, dry climates. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 116
The first year after death in warm, moist climates is characterized by skeletonization. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 115
The PMI of a decomposed body that is found in the warm summer months is more likely drawn from the high end of the range for decomposition. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 113
The decomposition process of the human body is often divided into stages for ease of understanding. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 113
Natural mummification occurs mainly in hot, wet environments. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 112
Adipocere, a substance composed of body fats that have absorbed water, occurs mainly among submerged remains. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 111
Some factors that can affect the rate of decomposition of a body are soil type, humidity, temperature, and level of insect activity. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 110–112
Complete skeletonization can occur in as few as two months in both hot, arid climates and cold climates. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 114–118
Insect and carnivore activity can affect the amount of soft tissue remaining on a decomposing body. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 121–123, 125
A buried body is excavated and found to be clothed in nylons, a wool skirt and a silk blouse all of which are in good condition. From this information, it is probable that this woman has been dead for well over one year. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 127
One of the tasks forensic anthropologists should undertake is collect plant material from human remains for analysis by forensic botanists. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 126
The number of rings in a root growing through human remains can be used to calculate PMI. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 126
One of the tasks forensic anthropologists should undertake is the capture of insects from human remains for analysis by forensic entomologists. (A) True (B) False (A) True pp. 123–125
Scavenging by animals can cause both arms and legs to be separated from the rest of the body. (A) True (B) False (A) True p. 123
Submerged remains decay faster than surface remains. (A) True (B) False (B) False p. 118
Forensic entomology is the study of how biological organisms change between death and discovery. (A) True (B) False (B) False Feedback: p. 109
A body is found in a lake with an average temperature of 10°C. After analysis, it is determined to have a TADS of 12. What is the PMI in average number of days? (A) 10.5 (B) 1.5 (C) 15 (D) 20 (A) 10.5 pp. 119–121
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