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A&P Ch 3 Cells


What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell? Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Function of a membrane protein that binds with hormones and neurotransmitters? This protein acts as a receptor
Diffusion is: The movement or spreading of a substance in solution down its concentration gradient, from higher concentration to lower concentration
If the solute concentration is greater in the solution on the inside of the cell compared to the solute concentration of the solution that is outside the cell, then what direction will water move? Into the cell
The pressure on water, proportional to the concentration of solute particles that cannot cross the plasma membrane is osmotic pressure
How does the nutrient glucose enter cells? Facilitated diffusion via a carrier protein
In this transport process, the energy from hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients. Active transport
If a red blood cell is placed in an isotonic solution: Water molecules enter and exit the cell at the same rate, allowing the cell to maintain its normal shape and volume
If a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution: Water molecules exit the cell faster than they enter, causing the cell to shrink
This is a transport process by which cells take up extracellular substances within vesicles. Endocytosis
This is a process used by white blood cells to capture and destroy bacteria or viruses. Phagocytosis
List 3 parts of a cytoplasm of a cell? Cytosol, Most organelles, Cytoskeleton
The organelles where protein synthesis occurs are the: Ribosomes
This organelle contains ribosomes, which synthesis proteins to be exported from the cell: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
The organelle where proteins are packaged into vesicles for export from a cell is the: Golgi complex
Proteasomes are organelles that: Degrade faulty cellular proteins
What separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm? Nuclear envelope
The hereditary units contained within chromosomes in the nucleus are called? Genes
This process is division of the cytoplasm during cell replication Cytokinesis
Translation is: Attachment of mRNA to a ribosome to direct protein synthesis
During which phase do organelles duplicate and centrosome replication occur? Interphase
This process is division of the cytoplasm during cell replication Cytokinesis
The cleavage furrow forms and divides the cell into 2 new cells during this phase of mitosis: Telophase
This molecule binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation. tRNA
What are oncogenic viruses? Viruses that can cause cancer
The characteristic of plasma membranes allowing only some substances to move through is known as: Selective permeability
The basic framework of the plasma membrane consists of: Phospholipids and proteins
Ion channels that allow the movement of ions into and out of cells are made from: Integral proteins
This type of membrane protein helps to anchor proteins in the plasma membrane of neighboring cells to one another. Linkers
This is the process by which gases move through a plasma membrane. Simple diffusion
Substances that move across the plasma membrane against their concentration gradient (uphill) require: Energy, in the form of ATP
In this type of transport process a solute, like glucose, binds to a specific transporter protein on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side after the transporter protein undergoes a change in shape. Facilitated diffusion
If a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution: Water molecules enter the cell faster than they exit, causing the cell to swell
The most important active transport pump in the plasma membrane of cells is: The sodium-potassium pump that uses ATP to remove excess sodium ions from the cell while bringing potassium ions into the cell
This is an extension of the plasma membrane that will surround a particle outside the cell forming a vesicle. Pseudopod
This is a transport process by which cells secrete materials stored in vesicles into the extracellular fluid. Exocytosis
The part of a cell where most organelles are found and many of the chemical reactions occur is the: Cytosol
The organelle where proteins to be exported from the cell are synthesized is the: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Where are fatty acids and steroids, such as estrogens and testosterone, synthesized? Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The organelles that carry proteins to the cell surface for export are: Secretory vessels
Which organelle recycles worn out organelles? Lysosomes
Which organelle oxidizes organic molecules? Peroxisomes
What do mitochondria do? Generate ATP
What is assembled in the nucleoli of the nucleus? Ribosomes
This is one of 46 long molecules of gene-containing DNA in the nucleus of every cell of the body: Chromosome
Transcription is: Copying the genetic information in DNA base triplets into a complementary strand of mRNA
The production of body cells, or somatic cell division is called: Mitosis
During this phase the chromatin fibers condense and shorten into chromosomes that are visible under the microscope. Prophase
The function of mitosis is: Production of new cells
The production of gametes, or reproductive cell division is called: Meiosis
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