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A&P Ch2 Chemistry

Introductory to chemistry

The subatomic particles that make up atoms include: Protons, neutrons, electrons
What region of an atom contains the protons and neutrons? Nucleus
What has an equal number of protons in the nucleus and electrons in the surrounding cloud? atom
What is a cation? An atom that has lost one or more electrons, resulting in a positively-charged ion
What particles play a role in creating chemical bonds? Electrons
Provides an electrical current? Electrolytes
This is the type of bond between the atoms forming a molecule of water Polar covalent
This occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms. Chemical reaction
Energy-releasing reactions that occur when nutrients are broken down by decomposition reactions describes? catabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body metabolism
Material that dissolves in water is called a: Solute
A solution with a pH value less than 7 would be a(n): Acid
What is considered a proton donor? Acid
The role of buffers is to: Convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases
What element do all organic compounds contain? Carbon
What is a monosaccharide that is important in producing energy? Glucose
This type of triglyceride contains more than one double bond in the fatty acid carbon atoms. Polyunsaturated
The building blocks of DNA and RNA are called: Nucleotides
A substance that adds or removes hydrogen ions from a solution is a(n): Buffer
An enzyme acts to: Speed up chemical reactions
By definition, the atomic number of an atom refers to: The number of protons in the nucleus
Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the pH of blood at or between: 7.35-7.45
In a typical body solution, the solvent is: Water
The building blocks of proteins are: Amino acids
The major energy storage polysaccharide in humans is: Glycogen
The most plentiful lipids in the body are: Triglycerides
This is defined as the capacity to do work. Energy
This is the most abundant and most important inorganic compound in the body. Water
This is the type of bond that holds water molecules together Polar covalent
This type of bond requires a sharing of electrons. Covalent
This type of chemical reaction will combine reactants to produce larger products. Synthesis
This type of lipid is the body's long term energy storage molecule. Triglyceride
This type of lipid is used by the body to create hormones. Cholesterol
What are the major elements found in the body? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
What determines the different elements found in nature? The number of protons in the nucleus
What term is applied to cations and anions that form when an ionic compound is dissolved in water? Both the cations and anions are called electrolytes
When the body demands energy, glycogen is broken down into: Glucose
Which chemical bond results from the electrons of one atom being attracted to the protons of another atoms? An ionic bond
Which is the function of ATP? Transfers energy liberated from its breakdown for cell functions
List 3 carbohydrate? Sugar, Glycogen, & Starches
List some facts about phospholipids? The molecule is an important part of cell membranes, they contain a glycerol backbone, and the head group is polar
Particles that have a neutral charge? Both neutron and atom
As more hydrogen ions (H+) are dissolved in a solution, the solution becomes more? acidic
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