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A&P Ch 27

Nutrition & Metabolism

Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as Anabolism
Where does glycolysis take place? Cytosol
This removes excess cholesterol from body cells and transport it to the liver for elimination? High density lipoproteins
What affect heat production? Hormones, Nervous system, Ingestion of food
Water-soluble vitamin? Vitamin B
Vitamins is considered an anti-oxidant? Vitamin C
Major nutrients for the body? Proteins, Carbohydrates, Minerals
What do provitamins do? Building blocks of vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamin? Vitamin E
What can antioxidant vitamins do? Can inactivate oxygen free radicals
Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called Catabolism
When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed? Adenosine diphosphate
How many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis? 2
How many ATPs can come from cellular respiration, which includes the use of oxygen? 36-38
Where does the Krebs cycle take place? Mitochondria
Where is most glycogen stored? Skeletal muscle
What pancreatic hormone stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose? Glucagon
What is gluconeogenesis? Reactions in the liver that form glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to which compound Glycogen
Splitting triglycerides for ATP is called Lipolysis
Lipogenesis or the synthesis of triglycerides, occurs when More calories are consumed than required for ATP need
Describe ketone bodies Can enter body cells and be broken down to acetyl CoA
Transport dietary lipids? Chylomicrons
How many essential amino acids are there? 10
The definition of a calorie is the amount of heat required to Raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C
This is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact between surfaces. Conduction
Approximately how much heat is lost through evaporation, under typical resting conditions? 22%
The heat promoting center stimulates parts of the brain that Stimulates skeletal muscle activity to shiver
Thyrotropin releasing hormone is secreted by the Hypothalamus
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