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Human Geo chapter 10

TermDefinition
commodity chain series of links connecting the many places of production of distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on the world market
dependency theory a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
Desertification the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Developing relating to societies in which capital needed to industrialize is in short supply
Dollarization when poorer ties the value of it's currency to that of a wealthier country or when it abandons it's currency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as it's own
Export processing zones zones established by many countries in the periphery ad semi periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory and trade agreements to attract foreign trade and investments
formal economy the legal economy that is taxed and monitor by a government and is included in a governments gross national product
Gross domestic product The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time
Gross national income the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus incomes received from investments outside the country
Gross national product a measure of the total value of the officially of recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year
Human Development Index Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by united nations combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy statistic
informal economy Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not included in that government's gross national product
island of development place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investments which has highly concentrations of high paying jobs and infrastructure
less developed country a country that is at it's relatively early stage in the process of economic development
literacy rate the percentage of people that can read and write in a given population
maquiladoras the term given to the zones in northern mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the US market the low wage workers in the primarily foreign owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then exported finish goods
Micro credit program program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small business
Millenium Development goal eight international goals that 192 united nations state and at least 23 international organization have agreed to achieve by the year 2015
Modernization Model a model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist walter Rostow
More developed country a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Neocolonialism a process of acculturation or cultural imperialism through which forms of industrial political and economic organization are often imposed on other cultures under the guise of getting aid in the form of technology and industrial progress but it can still
Neoliberalism a strategy for economic development that calls for free markets balanced budgets privatization free trade and minimal government intervention in the economy
Newly industrialized country a subgroup of developing countries that have experienced rapid industrialization of their economies ex. Taiwan,India,Mexico
Nongovernmental organization international organization that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiative on social economic and environmental issues
North American free trade agreement Agreement signed by United States Canada and Mexico in 1992 To form the large free trade zone in the world
Per capita GNI gross national product given country divided by its population
Physical quality of life index a composite indicator of development composed from life expectancy literacy rate and infant mortality
Primary activity Economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from environment such as mining agriculture and fishing
Purchasing power parity measurement of what the same amount of money buys in different countries
Quaternary activity service sector industries concerned with the collection processing and manipulation of information and capital ex finance administration and insurance
Rate of natural increase the annual rate of population growth
Secondary Activity the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products manufacturing
Special economic zones Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Structural adjustment loans Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the world bank and International Monetary Fund to countries in periphery and semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country (e.g privatization of certa
Structuralist theory a general term for model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as a result of historically derived power and regulations within global economic systems
Tertiary activity Economic activity associated with the provision of services such as transportation banking retailing education and office based jobs
Three tier structure with reference to Immanuel wallerstein's world system theory, the divisions of the world into core periphery as the semi periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy
Trafficking when a family sends a child or an adult to a labor recruiter in hopes that the labor recruiter will send money and the family member will earn money to send home
Vectored Diseases a disease carried from one host to another by an intermediate host
Created by: s456389
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