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APHuG

Chapter 7

TermDefinition
ecumene inhabited portion of the earth's surface
urban areas high concentrations of people
suburbs residential areas near cities
rural areas low concentrations
settlement place with a permanent population
urbanization process of developing towns
percent urban indicator of the proportion of the population that lives in cities and towns as compared to those that live in rural areas
sub urbanization the process of people moving to residential areas on the outskirts of cities
re urbanization suburbanites return to live in the city
ex urbanization move farther out into rural areas and work remotely
satellite city town near a very large city grows into a city independent of the larger one
City states consists of an urban center and its surrounding territory and agricultural villages.
urban hearths areas associated with river valleys, Iraq, Egypt, Pakistan, China, Mexico, and South America.
Metropolitan Statistical Areas Geographic area that includes a central city and all of its immediately interacting countries at least 50,000 people
Megalopolis when MSA's overlap, chain of connected cities
Micropolitan Statistical Area includes areas and surrounding areas of 10,000 to 50,000 people, smaller that a metropolitan statistical area
cultural Diversity what activities can be participated in and what people are located there
Preindustrial Cities developed prior to the industrial age, similar characteristics, surrounded by agricultural production on the outside of the city
Streetcar suburbs communities that grew up along rail lines
urban system an interdependent set of cities within a region
gravity model places that are larger and closer together will have a greater interaction than places that are smaller and farther away from each other
Rank-size rule # largest city in any region will be 1/# the size of the largest city
primate city largest city (Primate city) in an urban system is more than twice as large as the next largest city
central place theory Walter Christaller, 1933, explains the distribution of cities of different sizes across a region
central place location where people go to receive goods and services
Threshold the size of population necessary for any particular service to exist and remain profitable
Range the distance people will travel to obtain specific goods and services
megacities worlds largest cities, more than 10 million people
World cities exert influence far beyond their national boundaries, New York, Tokyo, London, and Paris
conurbation merged into a single, uninterrupted urban area
social heterogeneity the population of cities contain a great variety of people
Borchert's model John Borchert, describes urban growth based on transportation technology
pedestrian cities cities shaped by the distances people could walk
functional zonation portions of an urban area have specific and distinct purposes
central business district commercial heart of a city
concentric zone model rings that surround the CBD, first zone is transition zone, next three are residential zones, greater distance from CBD = more expensive and costly homes
sector model housing located near CBD, low medium and high income housing, sector for transportation edge to center
multiple nuclei model functional zonation occurred around the centers, look at model image
peripheral model suburban neighborhoods surround an inner city, served by nodes of commercial activity along a ring road
galactic city models spread of U.S. cities outward from the CBD to the suburbs
edge cities nodes of economic activity that have developed in the periphery of large cities
shantytowns poorly built housing
favelas neighborhoods where extreme poverty, homelessness, and lawlessness are common
basic economic base brings money into a city and gives the city its primary function
nonbasic economic base moves money within the city, does not take money from outside of the city
blockbusting black families move into white neighborhoods and then white families sell their homes
redlining outline an area and not lean money to African Americans in the area
gentrification older locations are rebuild and renovated
suburbanization centrifugal movement of people out of the urban areas to suburban areas
site absolute location of a city, trade defense and religion
situation relative location of a city
urban morphology the layout of a city, its physical form and structure
commercialization governments transform the central city to attract residents and tourists
planned communities planned out from beginning to end
gated communities surrounded by a gate, safe
invasion and succession one social group gradually replaces another through filtering
census tracts regions that function as the building blocks of a census
inner cities regions just outside the CBD
underclass people who face social hardships that contribute to their poverty
ghettos areas of poverty occupied by a minority group
urban heat island a portion of a city warmer than the surrounding regions
deindustrialization companies move to other cheaper regions
centrality The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
colonial city wider streets,larger houses, and lower density
commuter zone the fifth ring in the concentric zone model that is beyond the continuous built-up area of the city
counterurbanization net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
decentralization activities are away from a central location or group
early cities cities of the ancient world
emerging cities city currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
employment suture how the workforce is divided up between the three main employment sectors - primary, secondary, and tertiary
ethnic neighborhood a neighborhood in which the people who live in there and share physical, mental, and cultural traits
female- headed household a household in which the most powerful person is a female
festival landscape a landscape of cultural festivities
great cities a city with a population of more then 1 million
high- tech corridors thousands of high tech businesses and industries
hinterland the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
hydraulic civilization people who grew up or live on/by water
indigenous city a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
in-filling the use of vacant land for further construction
informal sector economic activity neither taxed or monitored by a government
infrastructure the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area
lateral commuting commuting between two suburbs
medieval cities cities that existed during the time frame of the middle ages
multiplier effect the expansion of the money supply
office park an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together
peak land value intersection land within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce
postmodern urban landscape Attempts to reconnect people to the place
racial steering real estates guide prospective buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
restrictive covenants prevent property sale to a person of a particular race or religion
segregation the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
nucleated a compact, closely packed settlement
dispersed lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads
elongated long and narrow in shape
shopping mall mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
slum a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
social structure social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships
specialization separation of tasks within a system
squatters people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent
grid streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion
dendritic fewer streets, based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry
access provides access to a subdivision, housing project, or highway
control allows highways or housing projects to be supervised
symbolic landscape landscape that depicts symbols
tenement An apartment building
town an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
underemployment Employed at a job that does not fully use one's skills or abilities
urban growth rate The rate at which an urban area grows
urban function Services that are provided in a certain urban area
urban hierarchy A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.
urban hydrology Study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it
urbanized population Population that lives in Urban areas
zone in transition area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
zoning dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes
cityscapes the urban equivalent of a landscape
Created by: LaurenJ.
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