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Greece

ancient classical Greek history

TermDefinition
Socrates Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens' youth
Plato Best known student of Socrates; he started a school in Athens; wrote down his conversations with Socrates
Aristotle Best known student of Plato; taught Alexander the Great; believed he could gain knowledge by observing the natural world
King Darius Persian king who tried to take over ancient Greece, but failed at the Battle of Marathon
King Xerxes Son of Darius; invaded Greece 10 years later; ended up retreating after losing the battle at Salamis
Pheidippides The man who ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon (490 BC), and then died.
Delian League an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help defend against the Persians
Pericles Leader of Athens during the Golden Age; built the Parthenon, led the Delian League; died of the plague during the war with Sparta.
King Leonidas King of Sparta; sacrificed himself with 300 of his soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae to protect the other Greeks during the Persian War
Battle of Salamis 480 B.C.E. The battle that effectively ended the Persian war. The Greek navy, although vastly outnumbered, defeated the Persian fleet using battle strategy
Athens A Greek city-state with the best navy; known for democracy, learning, theater, and architecture
Sparta A Greek city-state which was the best military power on land; their main god was Ares, god of war; they allowed their women to own businesses and become warriors
Parthenon A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Persian War 5th century BCE wars between the Persian empire and Greek city-states; Greece won
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta; although Sparta did win, this war left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north
siege in war, to surround a city and cut off any supplies from coming in so that the city gives up (for example, when Sparta surrounded the city-state of Athens and the plague killed off most of the people inside Athens)
olives and grapes What two things grow naturally in Greece that Greece is famous for exporting?
Trojan Horse The wooden horse that the Greeks used to trick the Trojans and win the Trojan War
Minotaur Killed by Theseus in this myth, what man-eating monster did King Minos keep in his labyrinth on the island of Crete?
peninsula surrounded by water on all sides; Greece is a good example, which meant that the sea played a major role in Greek culture
Mediterranean sea a very big sea that separates Europe from Africa; it gave the Greece seafood to eat and a way to travel and trade with many different places
mountains covering 3/4 of the land in Greece, they protected the Greeks from attack while limiting their ability to travel by land
goats and sheep What types of animals did they keep in Greece?
Troy a city-state across the Aegean Sea from Greece, and in the modern-day country of Turkey; fought with Greece in a war started when Helen was 'stolen' from Greece to marry a prince named Paris
Mt. Olympus the mountain where the Greeks believed their main gods and goddesses lived
democracy there are two types: representative, which is what we have today in the USA, and direct, which they had in ancient Greece
amphitheater An open-air theater constructed by the ancient Greeks; usually built on a hillside, with no outside facade
Created by: welalann