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Ch. 2 terms

TermDefinition
abdominal cavity cavity that contains the organs of digestion, abdomen
adenectomy surgical removal of a gland aden/ectomy
adenocarcinoma malignant tumor that originates in the glandular tissue adeno/carcin/oma
adenoma benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue aden/oma
adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland adeno/malacia
adenosclerosis abnormal hardening of a gland adeno/sclerosis
anaplasia change in the structure of cells in thier orientation to each other ana/plasia
anatomy study of the structures of the body
bloodborne transmission spread of disease through blood or other body fluids
caudal toward the tail caud/al
cephalic toward the head cephal/ic
chromosome genetic structure located within nucleus of each cell, contains about 100,000 genes, human somatic cell- 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
communicable disease contagious disease
congenital disorder abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
cytoplasm material within the cell membrane cyto/plasm
distal away from the middle
dorsal back of the organ or body dors/al
dysplasia abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs dys/plasia
endemic ongoing presence of a disease within a population en/dem/ic
endocrine glands glands that do not have ducts-secrete hormones directly into blood endo/crine
epidemic sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population epi/dem/ic
epigastric region region above the stomach epi/gastr/ic
etiology study of the causes of diseases eti/ology
exocrine glands secrete chemical substances into ducts exo/crine
functional disorder produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
genetic disorder pathological condition caused by absent or defective gene
hemophilia group of hereditary bleeding disorders
homeostasis process of maintaining a constant internal environment homeo/statasis
hyperplasia abnormal increase in number of cells and enlargement of organ hyper/plasia
hypogastric region located below the stomach hypo/gastr/ic
hypoplasia incomplete development of and organ or tissue hypo/plasia
iatrogenic illness unfavorable reponse to prescribed medical treatment
idiopathic disorder illness without a known cause idio/path/ic
infectious disease illness caused by a living pathogenic organism
inguinal relating to the groin
medial toward the midline
mesentary fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
midsagittal plane midline, splits into left and right
nosocomial infection disease acquired in a hospital
pandemic outbreak of disease occuring over a large geographic area pan/dem/ic
pelvic cavity cavity that contains reproductive organs
peritoneum multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum periton/itis
phenylketonuria rare genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing
physiology the study of the functions of the structures of the body physi/ology
posterior in the back poster/ior
proximal nearer the middle
retroperitonel located behind the peritoneum retro/periton/eal
stem cells unspecialized cells, can sometimes change into other cell types
thoracic cavity chest cavity, has heart and lungs
transverse plane splits body into top and bottom
vector-borne transmission spread of disease due to the bite of a vector
ventral the front or belly side of the organ or body ventr/al
anatomical position standing up straight facing front, arms are at sides and palms are facing forward
anterior situated in the front
superior uppermost, above, toward head
inferior lowermost, below, toward feet
lateral toward the side of the body
parietal peritoneum outer layer of peritoneum that lines the wall of the abdomin
visceral peritoneum inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs in the abdominal cavity
structures of the body cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, body
cytology study of cells cyt/ology
cytologist person who studies cells
adult stem cells found in organs, maintain and repair, many theraputic uses, can be transplanted
embryonic stem cells come from cord blood, harvested at birth, grow rapidly, do not require a match to transplant embryo/nic
cell membrane tissue that surrounds and protects contents of a cell
nucleus structure within cell, controls activity of cell, helps cell divide
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
gene strand of DNA that codes for one protein, controls herditory diseases and physical traits
genetics study of how genes are passed to offspring
gamete sex cell, only has 23 chromosomes
genetic mutation change in sequence of DNA molecule
cystic fibrosis genetic disorder from birth affects breathing and digestive systems
down syndrome genetic variation with 3 21st chromosomes
Huntington's disease genetic disorder, causes nerve degeneration
muscular dystrophy genetic diseases, weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles
epithelial tissue forms a protective covering for all body surfaces, also forms glands
connective tissue support and connect organs and other body tissues
muscle tissue cells that can contract and relax
nerve tissue cells that can conduct electrical charges
aplasia defective development of, or absence of an organ or tissue
adenitis inflammation of a gland aden/itis
pathology study of disease path/ology
pathogen disease producing microorganism
organic disorder produces symptoms cause by physical changes in the body such as a charcteristic rash
Created by: malloryharlan