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1: Study Guide

Chapter 1 AP Study Guide

geo Earth
graphy to write
Who invented the word geography? Eratosthenes
What two questions do geographers ask? Where and why
What is the difference between geographers and historians? Geographers identify important places, explain why human activities are located beside each other, ask where & why, organize material spatially, and travel to study Earth's surface.
What is the difference between geographers and historians? (continued) Historians identify important dates and events, explain why human activities happen chronologically, ask when and why, organize material chronologically, and they cannot study an era firsthand.
Why is every place unique? Every place is unique because of place and region.
Place A unique location on Earth that is distinguished by a particular characteristic.
Region An area of Earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics.
Why are diferent places interrelated? Places are interrelated because of scale, space, and connection.
Scale The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Connection The relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Map A two dimensional or flat scale model of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
What is the purpose of a map? Maps serve as reference tools and communication tools.
How do maps serve as a reference tool? Maps help find the shortest route between two places and help avoid getting lost while traveling routes.
How do maps serve as a communication tool? Maps depict the distribution of human activites or physical features and help geographers think about reasons underlying distributions.
Cartography The science of mapmaking.
How have maps changed from the beginning of cartography? Ancient maps focused on what the cartographer believed or saw with their own eyes. Ancient maps also focused on one small area. Maps from the beginning of cartography were handmade and created by tools the ancient world had.
How have maps changed from the beginning of cartography? (continued) Modern maps are now more accurate and are created by satellites.
What is GPS? Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth.
What three elements are used to make for the GPS in the US? A receiver, satellites, and tracking stations are the elements used for the GPS in the US.
What is the GPS used for? The GPS is used for navigation. GPS detects a vehicle's postion, and provides instructions on how to reach the destination. GPS can also summon help to a motorist summon help, a customer track a delivery truck, or help a person monitor transportation.
What is GIS? Geographic Information System (GIS) is a technology that captures stores, queries, and displays geogrpahic data.
What is the purpose of GIS? GIS produces accurate and complex maps by retrieving stored objects and combining them to create an image. Information is stored in layers; layers could be created for boundaries of countries, bodies of water, roads, and names of places.
What is the difference between the simple and complex maps that GIS creates? Simple maps might only display a single layer, but complex maps might combine several layers.
What is remote sensing? The science of gathering data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or other long distance methods.
What is the purpose of remote sensing? Geographers use remote sensing to map the changing distribution of a wide variety of features. These features could include agriculture, drought, and sprawl.
What is geotagging? The identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates.
What is the purpose of geotagging? The purpose of geotagging is to gather information about specific places on Earth that humans occupy.
What is a mental map? The personal representation of a portion of Earth's surface.
What is the purpose of a mental map? The purpose of a mental map is to depict what an individual knows about a place, and to personally show what is in a place and where it is located.
What is a map scale? The relationship between a feature's size on a map and its actual size on Earth.
How is map scale presented? Map scale is presented by ratio, written, and graphic. A ratio or fraction shows the map scale numerically, a written scale describes the relationship in words, and a graphic scale consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.
What are projections? Projections are the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.
What are the diferent types of distortions caused by projections? Shape, distance, relative size, and direction are the different types of distortions caused by projections. Shape may be longer/shorter than reality, distance may be increased or decreased, size may appear larger/smaller, and direction is inaccurate.
What projections are based off of perspective? Conic, cylindrical, and planar are perspective projections. Other projections are a mixture.
Meridians Arcs drawn between the North and South poles.
Parallels Circles drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
What is the importance of the International Dateline? If you pass the IDT going east towards America, you are moving a day back. If you pass the IDT going west towards Asia, you are moving a day forward. Every 15 degrees of longitude is a time zone. For example, California is three hours behind SC.
What is an absolute location? The precise location of a place; longitude and latitude coordinates.
What is a relative location? A location that is found by describing an absolute location.
What is location? The position that something occupies on Earth's surface.
What are the three ways to identify location? Place name, site, and situation are the three ways to identify location.
What is toponym? Toponym is the name given to a place on Earth.
What is site? The physical characteristic of a place.
What is situation? The location of a place relative to other places.
What two ways are situation important? Situation is important when finding an unfamiliar place and understanding the importance of a place.
What are site factors? The physical characteristics of a place.
What are situation factors? The location of a place in relation to other places and geographic features around it.
What is a formal region and what is it also known as? A region in which everyone shares a characteristic. It is also known as a uniform region. Ex: a county
What is a functional region and what is it also known as? A region that stems out from a focal point. It is also known as a nodal region. Ex: newspaper circulation area
What is a vernacular region and what is it also known as? A region that is viewed differently by people from that area. It is also known as a perceptual region. Ex: the South based on dialect
What is culture? Culture is the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
What is the origion of the world culture? Culture comes rom the Latin word cultus which means "to care for". to care about = cult - to take care of = nurse
What is distribution? The arrangement of a feature in space.
What are the three main properties of distribution? Density, concentration, and pattern are the three main properties of distribution.
Density The frequency in which something occurs in space.
Concentration The extent of a feature's spread over space. When objects are close together they are clustered, and they are dispersed when they are far apart.
Pattern The geometric arrangement of objects in space.
What is diffusion? The process by which people, ideas, and objects spread across space from one place to another over time.
What is relocation diffusion? The spread of an idea through the physical movement of people from one place to another.
What is expansion diffusion? The spread of the feature from one place to another in an additive process.
What is contagious diffusion? The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population.
What is hierarchial diffusion? The spread of an idea from one person to another.
What is a stimulus diffusion? The spread of an underlying principle even though a characteristic fails to diffuse.
Created by: prettyinpurple