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Chap. 8 Vocab

political geography a subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and spatial organizations of governments
state a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other states
territory an area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state
territoriality in political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
sovereignty a principal of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
territoriality integrity the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states
mercantilism associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade
Peace of Westphalia peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion
nation legally, a term encompassing all the citizens of a state. most definitions now tend to refer to a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes. such homogeneity actually prevails with
nation-state theoretically, a recognized member of a modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation
democracy government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens within the state
multinational state state with more than one nation within its borders
multistate nation nation that stretches across borders and across states
stateless nation nation that does not have a state
colonialism rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
scale representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
world systems theory refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, and the periphery countries
capitalism people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them with the goal of achieving profit
commodification when something is given monetary value
core higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in world economy
periphery lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; generate less wealth than core processes in world economy
semi-periphery places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core, but in turn exploit the periphery
ability in the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means
centripetal forces that tend to unify a country
unitary a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
federal a political territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state
devolution regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
territorial representation each representative is elected from a territoriality defined district
reapportionment representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
splitting the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts an electoral district, in which the majority of the constituents in the district are nonwhite or racial or ethnic minorities
majority-minority districts an electoral district, in which the majority of the constituents in the district are nonwhite or racial or ethnic minorities
gerrymandering manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
boundary vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface
geometric boundary political boundary defined as a straight line or an arc
physical-political boundary political boundary defined by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape
heartland theory a geopolitical theory that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world
critical geopolitics process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politics
unilateralism one state is in a position of dominance with allies following following rather than joining the political decision making process
supranational organization three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives ex: European Union
deterritorialization the eradication of social, political, or cultural practices from their native places and populations
reterritorialization states moving to solidify control over its territory ex: solidifying borders due to concern over immigration
compact state a state that possess a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory
prorupted state a type of territorial shape with a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory
elongated state a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
fragmented state a state that is not a contiguous whole, but rather separated in parts
perforated state a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
enclave a country or part of a country that is surrounded by another
exclave a part of a country that is or almost completely separated from the main part of the country
centrifugal forces that tend to divide a country
Created by: a.bby
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