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Chapet 12 Industry..

De Blij

industrial revolution the term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in the late-eighteenth-century Europe.
location theory a logical attempt to explain the location pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von thunen model is a leading example
variable costs costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. energy supply and labor costs)
friction of distance the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance.
distance decay the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance, the less interaction
least cost theory model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
agglomeration process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to the manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities
deglomeration the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition
locational interdependence theory that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each others territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective consumer base
primary industrial regions Western and Central Europe; Eastern North America; Russia and Ukraine; and Eastern Asia, each of which consists of one or more core areas of industrial developmen with subsidiary clusters.
break-of-bulk point a location along a transport route where gods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
Fordist a highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor.
Post-fordist world economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass-produced;
just-in-time delivery method or inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed
global division of labor phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possibleby the compression of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems.
intermodal connections lplaces where two or more modes of transportation meet
deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheap , leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
outsource with reference to production, to turn over in part or in total to a third party
offshore to outsource to a third party located outside of a country
Sunbelt the south/southwest regions of the us
technopole centers or nodes of high-technolody research and activities aorund which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established
agglomeration economics cost saving resulting from location near other firms
basic industry an industry producing goods or services for sale to other regions
capital goods goods used to produce other goods
cost minimization an industrial location strategy that seeks to minimize what the firm pays to produce and distribute its products or services.
division of labor the specialization of workers in particular tasks and different stages of production process
economic base model a demand-driven model in which exports to other regions drive regional development
economies of sale lower production costs as a result of larger volume of production
externalities effects that extend beyond any sigle company
industrial economy the dominant mode of production and consumption of the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, emphasizing large domestic corporations engaged in food processing, heavy equiptment manufacturing and energy
labor productivity amount produced per worker per hour
localization economies saving results from local specialization in a particular industry
maquiladora an export assembly plant in Mexico that relies on cheap labor to assemble imported components that are then re-exported as finished goods.
market oriented the tendency for an industry to locate near population centers in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when the final product is more expensive to transport than the raw materials.
nonbasic industry an industry producing goods or services for sale within the local region.
postindustrial economy the emerging mode of production and consumption of the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries, featuring huge transnational corporations and localized agglomerations that produce and/or utilize information technology and telecommunications.
primary activity an economic activity that directly extracts or harvests resources from the earth.
quarternary activity highly skilled, info-based services
raw material oriented the tendency for an industry to locate near the source of raw materials in order to save on transportation costs.
regional multiplier a numerical relationship showing the number of total jobs created for each new basic job in a region
secondary activity an economic activity that transforms raw materials into usable products, adding value in the process.
services tasks done for consumers or businesses for a fee.q
spatial division of labor the specialization of different regions in different stages of the production process.
technological spillovers leakage of technological know-how to other people and firms usually located in close proximatey
tertiary activity an economic activity that links the primary and sewcondary sectors to the consumers and other businesses either by selling goods directly or by performing services utilizing those goods.
transaction costs the unseen costs of doing business; the costs required for gathering information about,negotiating, and enforcing contracts in the exchange for a product or service.
ubiquitous available nearly everywhere
urbanization economies savings resulting fromlocating in or near urban areas that have a large and diverse labor pool, large markets, developed infrastructure, and availability of a wide variety of goods and services.
india goods of iron, brass, silver, gold, textiles
great britian where the industrial revolution started
china/japan industrial based
europe lack of quality, aggressive
Created by: ohai
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