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chapter 20


Old Order the political and social system in place in France before the revolution.
King Louis XVI King of France from from 1774 to 1792; his unpopular policies helped trigger the french revolution. Deposed by the National Convention, he was executed by Guillotine.
Marie Antoinette Queen of France , wife of King Louis XVI; she was queen during the french revolution and disliked by many french citizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined.
First Estate in pre-revolution France, the clergy
Second Estate in pre-revolution France, the nobles
Third Estate in pre-revolution France, the bourgeoisie,artisan,workers and peasants.
Bourgeoisie the urban middle class;merchants, professionals, and manufacturers
Sansculottes a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the french revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen a document that laid out the basic principles of the french revolution-- liberty,equality, and fraternity.
Radical a person with extreme views
Maximilien Robespierre Leading figure of the french revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most blood thirsty time.
Guillotine a device used during the french revolution for beheading people
Counterrevolution a revolution against the government established by a revolution.
Reign of Terror a period during the french revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens.
Napoleon Bonaparte General;Emperor of France; he seized power in coup d'etat in 1799; he led french armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba.
Admiral Horatio Nelson British admiral; he defeated Napoleon's navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Coup D'etat sudden overthrow of a government by force
Plebiscite the procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a yes or no vote.
Continental System the system of commercial blockades of Britain and continental Europe set in place by Napoleon with the intent of destroying Britain's economy.
Nationalism sense of pride and devotion to ones nation
Czar Alexander I Czar of Russia from 1801 to 1825; after the defeat of the Napoleon's army in 1812, he became on of the most powerful leaders in Europe, supporting the repression of all revolutionary movements in Russia and Europe.
Hundred Days period that marks the time between Napoleons return to Paris from Elba, his final defeat at waterloo, and restoration of king Louis XVII
Duke of Wellington British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Prince Klemens von Metternich Austrian statesman and diplomat ; he was the Austrian representative at the congress of Vienna.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French statesman and diplomat; he was one of the negotiators at the Congress of Vienna. He represented France on behalf Louis XVIII.
Indemnity compensation that is paid to a nation for the damage inflicted upon it in war.
Reactionary an extremist who not only opposes change but also wants to undo certain changes.
Created by: jordanthomasb