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NCLE opticion

QuestionAnswer
1. The outer layer, know as the fibrous tunic, consists of the cornea and sclera.2.The middle layer, know as the vascular tunic or uvea, consists of the choroid, ciliary body and iris 3.The inner l The layer of the globe
Outer layer of the globe 1. Cornea 2. Sclera 3. Limbus
The middle layer( vascular tunic or uvea ) 1. Choroid 2. Ciliary body 3. Iris
Inner layer 1. Retina
The cornea is divided into five distinct layer 1. Epithelium 2. Bowman's membrane 3. Stroma 4. Descemet's membrane 5. Endothelium
A non-pathological lipid deposit that a may appear in the periphery of the cornea, giving the appearance of a whitish ring around the outer edge. Most common in the elderly Arcus senilis
Extensive swelling of the cornea caused by endothelial breakdown. Pockets of fluid called bullseye, from in the corneal tissue and rise to the epithelial surface,where they break and cause pain Bullous keratopathy
Swelling, or fluid retention of corneal tissue Edema
Groups of white blood cells in the corneal tissue Infiltrates
Inflammation of the cornea Keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea due to dryness or exposure Keratitis sicca
A cone-shaped deformity of the cornea, due to a thinning of the central cornea Keratoconus
A dense opacity of the cornea Leukona
A medium density corneal opacity Macula
A faint opacity of the cornea Nebula
New blood vessels in the cornea Neovascularization( cornea )
A recurring loss of epithelial tissue after corneal injury Recurrent corneal erosion
Open corneal tissue as a result of trauma, burns, or infection Ulcer ( cornea)
The average cornea has the refractive power of approximately 43D
A cone shaped disorder of the central cornea is called Keratoconos
The junction of the cornea an sclera Limbus
The refractive index of the cornea is 1.37
The cornea joins and is continuous with the Sclera
Cornea edema is usually causes by Hypoxia
Growth of blood vessels into the cornea is called Neovascularization
All of the following are layers of the cornea except 1.Descemet's membrane 2.epithelium 3.endothelium 4.stroman'membrane 4.stroman'membrane
The corneal layer that regenerates completely every 14 days is the 1.epithelium 2.Browman's membrane 3. Descemet' membrane 4. Nebula Epithelium
Inflammation of the cornea is called Keratitis
The main function of the middle layer of the globe is nutritional it contains the vascular system that nourishes many parts of the eye. The middle layer is also know6as the UVEAL TRACT. It contains theses structure Choroid, ciliary body, iris
A congenital absence of the iris Aniridia
Unequal pupil sizes Anisocoria
Different colored irises Heterochomia
Inflammation of the iris and ciliary body Iritis
Neovascularization of the iris Rubeosis
Inflammation of the uvea Uveitis
With uveal tract disorder, patients may report Visual problem especially with the accommodation, a dull, aching pain, irregularity shaped pupil or abnormal pupil response
A drug that causes the pupil to dilate is called Mydryatic
The muscle that causes the crystalline lens to accommodate is Ciliary
Neovascularization of the iris is called Rubeosis
the process that secretes aqueous humor into the eye is Ciliary process
One type of cone responds to visible light across the blue and of the light spectrum, another at red end, and a third across the intermediate (green) range. The variety of colors that we see is a result of the mixture and overlapping of the types of cones Color vision there are three different types of cones, containing three different light sensitive pigments called photo pigments
Color blindness Monochromatic, Dichromat, Trichoromatic
When the retina tears or loses contact with the choroid Retinal detachment
The structure of the eye that detect color is Cones
A scotoma is An area of retinal vision loss
The fovea is a small depression in the Macula
Retinitis pigmentosa is a hereditary disorder that affects the Rods
Someone who can only see back, white and shades of gray is referred to as Monochromat
The natural blind spot in each eye is found at the Point where the optic nerve leaves the glove
When looking through the pupil with an ophthalmic instrument, the portion of the posterior glove that is visible is called Fundus
Macula degeneration result is A loss of central vision
When the retina tears it loses contact whit the Choroid
The three different types of cones contain theses photo pigments Blue, red and green
An eye disease where intraocular pressure exceeds normal limits is Glaucoma
An eye disorder caused by developments of opacities on the crystalline lens Cataract
The fluid that fill the anterior and posterior chamber is
Aqueous humor
The anterior chamber is located Between the cornea and the iris
A person with glaucoma loses this part of their field first Peripheral
Retinal tears can develop when The vitreous degenerates or shrinks
Discarded aqueous humor is directed from the chamber to the ciliary veins through Canal of schlemm
The total power of the crystalline lens is approximately +60.00D
This loss of flexibility and accommodation of the crystalline lens lead to Presbyopia
When the optic stars to "cup", this could be an indication of Glaucoma
Where is the Anterior chamber Located between the cornea an iris
Where is the posterior chamber Located between the iris and crystalline lens and ciliary body
Chamber of the eye Anterior chamber, posterior chamber, vitreous chamber
Folds of skin and tissue that protect the glove and cornea Eyelids
Thin, transparent membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelids that moistens the eye Conjunctiva
Fringe of hair edging the eyelid that protect the eye from debris, and are sensitive to being touched Eyelashes
6 major muscle that control eye movement Extrinsic muscle
Adnexa aculi structure Eyelids, conjunctiva, eyelashes, orbit, extrinsic muscle
Eyelids Eyelids or palpebrae, parse rap fissure: measures approximately 30mm horizontal by 10mm vertical, canthi, carbuncle, punctum
Eyelid disorder inflammation of the lid margins Blepharitis
Eyelid disorder drooping of the upper eyelid Blepharitis (ptosis)
Eyelid disorders a blockage and inflammation of a meibomian gland Chalazion
Eyelid disorder outward turning of the eyelid Ectropian
Eyelid disorder inward turning of the eyelid Entropian
Eyelid disorder infection of zeis gland Hordeolum (stye)
Eyelid disorder incomplete eyelid closure Lagophthalmos
Eyelid disorder inward turning of the eyelashes Trichiasis
Eyelid skin cancer locations and percentages Upper eyelid 16%, lateral can thus 4%, lower eyelid 44%, medial canthus 19%, eyebrow 17%
The canthus is Juncture of the upper and lower lids
A ptosis is Drooping of the eyelid
The distance between the upper and lower eyelid is Palpebral fissure
Blepharitis is a condition that affects the Lid margins
The openings from which tears drain are the Punctum
44% of all eyelid skin cancers affect the Lower eyelid
A hordeolum or types is an inflammation of the Zeis gland
Contraction of this muscle closed the eyelid Orbicularis
Conjunctiva Palpebrae conjunctiva, bulbar conjunctiva, fornix conjunctiva
Conjunctiva fornices The inferior fornix is easily observed by pulling down the lower lid, the superior fornix is deeper and more protected
Conjunctiva disorder Conjunctivitis, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC)
Conjunctiva disorder small, flat, pigmented, benign tumor Negus
Conjunctiva disorder wedge-shape overgrowth on the medial vulvar conjunctiva Pterygium
Conjunctiva disorder blood from a broken vessel that is trapped under the conjunctiva Subconjunctival hemorrhage
Conjunctiva disorder viral infection of the conjunctiva, producing severe scarring of the lids, and eventually affecting the cornea Trachoma
A pink/red coloration of the underside of the eyelids and the outer surface of the sclera is probably Conjunctivitis
Covers the anterior sclera to the limbus, and moves the eyeball movements Bulbar conjunctiva
The transitional areas, between the kids and glove are called Fornices
The eyelid perform all of these functions Provide protection through the " blink reflex", distribute the tears film over de cornea, limited the amount of light entering the eye
This disorder is characterized by large bumps that appear on the conjunctiva surface of the upper lid Giant papillary conjunctiva
Lacrimal system the pre-corneal teas film that results from each blink consists of three layer Lipid layer, aqueous layer, mucous layer
Other common lacrimal drainage disorder tear spilling onto cheeks due to faulty drainage Epiphora
Other common lacrimal drainage disorder inflammation of the cornea due to dryness associated with a tear deficiency Keratitis sicca
Pre-corneal tears film lipid layer The outermost layer consisting of oils secreted by the meibomian and zeis gland in the eyelid. This layer of oil minimizes evaporation of the underlying watery layer, and prevents tears from spilling out onto the eyelid
Pre-corneal tears film aqueous layer Secreted by the main lacrimal gland that is located above the eyeball on the lateral side. It makes up the majority of the tears film, and responsible for keeping the outer layer of the cornea moist
Pre-corneal mucous layer Made of mucous from the goblet cell, it adheres to the cornea, and creates smooth surface over which the tears can spread easily
All of the following are function of the pre-corneal tears film Acting as a lubricant to the cornea, providing the tears the occur when crying, providing a smooth optical surface for the cornea
Secretions from which of the following form the oily layer of the pre-corneal tear film Meibomian gland
Dextroversion Both eyes moving to the right
Levoversion Both eyes moving to the left
Supraversion Both eyes moving upward
Infraversion Both eyes moving downward
Convergence Both eyes moving inward, nasally
Divergente Both eyes moving outward, temporarily
A person with diplopia Sees two object
Each eye has how many extrinsic muscle that assists with eye movement Six 6 (4 recti and 2 oblique)
Amblyopia is typically treated with Occluded lens
The ability to maintain single binocular vision with both eye is called Fusion
The term that describes both eye moving to the right is Dextroversion
The muscle that moves the eye medially toward the nose is the Media rectus
The muscle that moves the eye downward and outward is the Inferior oblique
The term that describes what both eyes do when reading Convergence
Five extrinsic muscle attach to the orbit at the ring of fibrous tissue called the Annulus of Zinn
The imaginary line that connects the object with the fovea at the center of the macula is called the Visual axis
The orbit 1. Optic Foramen 2. Superior Orbital Fissure ( annulus of Zinn
Medial rectus Movement medially toward the nose, origination annulus of Zinn, abductor
Lateral rectus Movement laterally or outward, origination annulus of Zinn, abductor
Superior rectus Movement upward, origination annulus of Zinn, elevation
Inferior rectus Movement downward, origination annulus of Zinn, depression
Superior oblique Movement downward & inward, origination annulus of Zinn, intorsion
Inferior oblique Movement downward & outward, origination near the nasolacrimal duct, extorsion
Wearing schedule 1. Daily (DW) 2. Extended (EW)
Soft lens material 1. PolyHema(HMA) 2. Silicone Hydrogel
RGP contact lenses are also available in the following lens designs . Spherical, toric, multifocal, Otho-K
RGP Materials Silicone Acrylate(SA), Fluoro-Silicone/Acrylate
Contact lenses are designed to cling to the tear layer, and cover the Cornea
Disposable lenses are designed to be replaced Daily or up to every two weeks
Frequent replacement lenses are designed to be replaced Monthly or quarterly
Conventional lenses are designed to be replaced Every six months or longer
Check the three(3) reasons why RGP lenses might be prescribed 1. To correct for astigmatism when a Toric lens did not provide acceptable vision. 2. For patients with keratoconus. 3. For use in the ortho-k process where lenses are worn during sleep to reshape the cornea
Check the statements about the silicone Hydrogel contact lens material that are TRUE Is the latest in soft contact lens technology, available in both Daily wear and Extended wear, allows more oxygen to transfer through the material, and provides all day comfort
Enhancement tint colored contact lenses Darken or intensify the existing eye color
Opaque tint colored contact lenses Dramatically change the eye color
Check all the characteristics of a Toric contact lens The bottom of the lens is weighted to ensure that it remains stationary on the eye when the patient blinks or looks around,correct for astigmatism
Who determines the wearing schedule ( modality) for the patient's lenses The wearing schedule is prescribed by the doctor
. The first hydrogel CL material . Has a limited ability to dissolve and transfer oxygen to the cornea .available in both Daily and extender PolyHema (HEMA )
. The latest in CL . More oxygen to pass through the lens. More wearing comfort. Available both Daily wear and Extended Silicone Hydrogel
Created by: Opticion